Family Name: Papaveraceae

Botanical Name : Papaver somniferum Linn

Vernacular Name: Sans-Ahiphenam ,Hind - Aphim, Eng - opium poppy


It is emaciating, astringent; efficacious in deranged kapha but excites vata and pitta anticovulsant, sedative, narcotic, diaphoretic, analgesic, used in urinary troubles,cough, bronchial diseases, diarrhoea; styptic.

Parts used: Seeds, seed oil, unripe capsules and flowers

Properties and uses:

The petals are bitter, expectorant, sudorific and sedative, and are useful in coughs. The opium obtained from the fruits is constipating, bitter, astringent, sweet, aphrodisiac, sedative, narcotic, anodyne, antispasmodic, sudorific and nervineonic.

It is useful in cough,' ophthalmitis, otitis and proctalgia and coxalgia due to diarrhoea and dysentery. It is also good for internal haemorrhages.

The seeds are sweet, constipating, aphrodisiac and tonic. They are ground in cold water and administered in diarrhoea and dysentery.

Vapours of boiling water, mixed with small doses of opium, is. useful in conjunctivitis. Camphorated opium is an excellent pain-killer in sprain. However, it is contraindicated for people suffering from asthma, cardiac diseases and urinary disorder. Poppy seeds are demulcent, nutritive and mild astringent; beneficial in cough and asthma.

Seed oil, freed from narcotic principles, is useful in diarrhoea and dysentery



Family Name: Amaranthaceae

Botanical Name : Achyranthes aspera

Vernacular Names: Sans: Apamarga; ; Eng: Prickiy-chaffflower.


It is tikta, ushnnveerya .and katu; alleviates deranged function of kapha; useful in the treatment of piles, pruritus, dysentery and dyscrasia; astringent and emetic.

Parts used: Different parts of the plant including seeds.

Therapeutic uses:

Leaves made into a paste with water are applied to bites of poisonous insects, wasps, bees, etc. Powdered root, mixed with honey, is given internally in haemorrhoids.

Decoction of the root is prescribed in diarrhoea. Root paste is given to stop bleeding after abortion. A pinch of root powder, in combination with pepper powder and honey, is a good remedy for cough; seeds,rubbed with rice-water, are prescribed to patients suffering from bleeding piles.

Decoction of the whole plant is diuretic; it is efficacious in renal dropsies and in combination with that of Kakajanga (Leea aequata) useful in insomnia.

Dry plant is beneficial in gonorrhoea and colic. It also acts as a laxative.

Ashes of the plant with water and jaggery are effective in ascites and anasarca;sesamum oil medicated with ashes of the plant is applied as eardrops.



Family Name:Fabaceae

Botanical Name : Clitoria ternatea

vernacular Name: Sans-Aparajita ,Hind -Aparajit , Eng - clitoria

Both the varieties of Aparajita are katu, sheela (sheetaveerya), kashaya, katuvipaka, tikta; considered to be a good brain tonic, useful in throat and eye affections, skin diseases, urinary troubles, tridosha, ama, oedema, ulcer; antidotal; improve memory and intelligence

Parts Used: Seeds and root.

Therapeutic Uses:

Seed: powerful purgative; root: cathartic and diuretic.

1. White-flowered variety.-The root has a sharp bitter taste; cooling, acrid; laxative, diuretic, alexiteric, anthelmintic; tonic to the brain; good for eye diseases, ulcers of the cornea, tuberculous glands, elephantiasis, headache; cures" tridosha", leucoderma, burning sensation, pains, biliousness,inflammations, ulcers, " kapha ", snake-bites.

2. Blue-flowered variety.-The root is bitter and has all the properties of that ofthe white-flowered variety; in addition, it is aphrodisiac; cures dysentery, severe bronchitis, asthma, consumption; useful in ascites and abdominal enlargement.

The root is purgative and diuretic; useful in ascites The root is considered laxative and diuretic, useful in ascites and fevers., the root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis; it causes nausea and vomiting.

The juice of the root of the white-flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as aremedy for hemicrania.

The root-bark is diuretic and laxative; a decoction is given as a .demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra.

The seeds are purgative and aperient. The infusion of the leaves is used for eruptions.

The juice of the leaves, mixed with that of green ginger, is administered in cases, of colliquative sweating in hectic fever.

The juice of the leaves mixed with common salt is applied warm all around the ear in ear-aches, especially when accompanied with swelling of the neighbouring glands.

The seeds are cathartic and the root diuretic. The powdered seeds in combination with ginger powder were found to have laxative.



Family Name: Caesalpiniaceae

Botanical Name : Cassia fistula

Vernacular Names: Sans: Aragvadha; Hind: Amaltas; Eng : Indian laburnum.


Aragvadha is madhura, sheeta(sheetaveerya), anticolic, antipyretic; in pruritus and other skin diseases, polyuria, deranged kapha and flatulence,

Parts Used: Pods, Dowers, leaves and root-bark.

Therapeutic Uses:

Pods, seeds, leaves and root-bark' laxative; leaves: juice usedin skin diseases and leprosy. The root is useful in skin diseases, leprosy, tuberculous glands, syphilis; cures burning sensation.

The leaves are laxative, anti. periodic; heal ulcers; used in rheumatism; juice given in erysipelas. The buds improve taste; laxative, antipyretic; cure" kapha ", biliousness, skin diseases, leprosy.

The flowers have flavour, with a bitter acrid taste; cooling, astringent; cure" kapha" and biliousness; cause flatulence.-The fruit has flavour; digestible,cooling, purgative, antipyretic; cures leprosy, diseases of the heart, and abdominal pains.

The seeds are sweetish, oily, laxative, carminative; improve the appetite; cure biliousness. The seeds are emetic.

The leaves lessen inflammation.

The flowers are purgative.

The fruit has a sweetish bad taste with flavour;antipyretic, purgative, abortifacient, demulcent; lessens inflammation and heat of the body; useful in chest complaints, throat troubles, liver complaints, diseases of the eye, griping, rheumatism; may cause asthma.

The root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. the juice of the young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by the application of the marking-nut juice.

The poultice of leaves has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism when rubbed into the affected parts. Internally, it is given as aderivative in paralysis and brain affections.



Family Name: Combretaceaes

Botanical Name : Terminalia arjuna

vernacular Name: Sans, Hind & Arjun;; Eng Arjun


It is kashaya and ushna; beneficial in deranged kapha; cures ulcer; useful deranged pitta; relieves from fatigue and allays thirst; aggravates diseases caused by deranged vata.

Parts used, Fruits, leaves and bark

Therapeutic uses,

Fruits are deobstruent, tonic, leaves juice are used in earache,externally used as a cover on sores and ulcers ,bark is antidysentric,antipyretic, astringent, cardiotonic, lithotriptic, styptic and tonic.powder act as a diuretic in cirrhosis of liver and gives relief in hypertension.

The bark is acrid and sweet, cooling and heating; alexiteric, styptic, tonic, antidysenteric; useful in fractures, ulcers, blood diseases, intoxications,urinary discharges, "kapha" , biliousness, strangury,. diseases of the heart,anaemia, excessive perspiration, asthma, tumours, leucoderma, and falsepresentations of the foetus; allays thirst and relieves fatigue.

The bark is biter; expectorant, aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic; useful in biliousness, externally in wounds and fractures both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges.

In fractures and contusions, with excessive ecchymosis, powdered arjun bark is recommended to be take internally with milk.

A decoction of the bark is used as a wash in ulcers and chancres.

The bark is astringent and febrifuge, the fruit tonic and deobstruent, the juice of the fresh leaves is a remedy for earache.
The bark is useful in bilious affections, and as an antidote to poisons, the bark is used to sores, etc.



Family Name: Caesalpiniaceae

Botanical Name : Saraca indica

Vernacular names, sans –Asokah Hindi-Asoka, Eng Ashoka


It is sheetala (sheetaveerya), tikta, astringent; improves complexion; kasi:subdues deranged tridosha; useful in adenitis; allays thirst; alleviates bur sensation; anthelmintic; beneficial in emaciation, poisoning and dyscrasia

Parts Used: Seeds, flowers and stem-bark.

Therapeutic Uses:

Seeds: diuretic; .flowers : effective in blood dysent stem-bark:reputed to cure colic, dysentery, dyspepsia, piles, ulcers and ute troubles. in particular menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids, leucorrhoea, menstrual pain.

The bark is bitter and acrid; refrigerant, astringent to the bowels, alexiterie, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cure! dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation,diseases of the blood, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of the abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from the uterus,menonrrhagia; useful in fractures of the bones; beautifies the complexion. The seeds are useful in urinary discharges.

The bark is much used in uterine affections and especially in menorrhagia.

A decoction of the bark in milk is generally prescribed.

The flowers pounded and mixed with water are used in haemorrhagic dysentery.

A liquid extract of the bark of this plant which is strongly astringent was administered to cases of menorrhagia and found to do considerable good



Family Name: Vitaceae

Botanical Name : Cissus quadrangula

vernacular Name: Sans- Astisamhara, Hind –Hadjora, Eng –Edible stemmed vine

It is said to be beneficial in deranged vata, sleshma; promotes the union of fracture; ushna, sara, anthelmintic; cures piles; applied in the treatment of diseases of the eye; digestive and aggravates pitta; aphrodisiac.

Parts Used: Leaves, young shoots, stem and root.

Therapeutic Uses:

Leaves and young shoots: alterative and stomachic; powder given in digestive troubles; stem: antiscorbutic; stomachic; paste prescribed in asthma; juice given internally and externally for the union of thefracture of bones, beneficial in epistaxis when dropped into the nostril, in otorrhoea as an eardrop and in irregular menstruation; root: powder considered as a specific treatment for the union of the fracture of bones with the same effect as that of a plaster.




Botanical Name : MALVACEAE

vernacular Name: Sans,;Atibala, Hind; Kanghi Eng; Country mallow

It is tikta, katu, subdues deranged vata, anthelminitic, cures burning sensation,allays thirst, antidotal, antiemetic, anti fatigue’

Parts Used: Seeds, leaves, bark and root.

Therapeutic Uses:

Seeds: in piles; laxative, expectorant; in chronic cystitis,gleet and gonorrhoea;

Leaves: demulcent, locally applied to boils and ulcers and as a fomentation to painful parts of the body; Decoction used in toothache and tender gums; given internally for inflammation ofladder;

Infusion of leaves or root: demulcent and diuretic; prescribed in fever, chest affection, and urethritis; bark: astringent and diuretic.



Family Name: Ranunculaceae

Botanical Name : Aconitum hrterophyllum

Vernacular names, sans Ativisha ,Hin Atish, Eng Indian Atis


It is katu, ushnaveerya, tikta; beneficial in deranged kapha and pitta;antipyretic, antidysenteric and antidiarrhoeal, expectorant, antidotal and antiemetic.

Parts used: Underground stem and root.

Therapeutic uses:

Powdered root mixed with honey is effective for children suffering from cough, coryza, fever and vomiting.

Root is considered to be aphrodisiac, digestive, valuable febrifuge, bitter tonic and useful in throat infections, abdominal pain and gastralgia .

They are useful in dysentery, stomach disorders, fever, malarial fever, vomitings, haemorrhoids, haemorrhages, internal inflammatory conditions, They are highly recommended in diseases for children.



Family Name: Maliaceae

Botanical Name : Azadirachta indica

vernacular Name: Sans –Nimba , Hind –Nim, Eng –Margosa tree.

It is sheeta, laghu, astringent, katuvipaka; stimulates digestive function;pacifies deranged vata; unpalatable; beneficial in fatigue, thirst, cough, fever,anorexia, ulcer, deranged pitta and kapha, vomiting, skin diseases, hiccup and polyuria.

Leaves are beneficial for eyes, deranged pitta; anthelmintic; antidotal;aggravates vata, katuvipaka; beneficial in all types of anorexia and skin diseases.

Fruits are tikta, katuvipaka, cathartic, snigdha, laghu, ushna; cures skin diseases, abdominal lump, piles, worms and polyuria.

Parts Used: Fruits, seeds, flowers, leaves, twigs and bark.

Therapeutic Uses:

The plant is regarded as the "Village Dispensary" in India because of the use of all its parts for various ailments in the indigenous system of medicine as follows:

FRUITS : (herries) antiperiodic, anthelmintic, astringent, emollient, purgative and tonic; beneficial in piles and in urinary diseases;

The unripe fruit is oily and bitter; hot, purgative, anthelmintic; cures urinary discharges, skin diseases, tumours, piles, toothache.-The ripe fruit has the same properties as the unripe one; it is. also useful in consumption, and in eye diseases

SEEDS : (oil) antiseptic, locally used in eczema and leprosy; in common dermatosis and in rheumatism; kernel: oil known as Oil of Margosa or Neem oil possesses antifertility, antifungal, antimicrobial and antiseptic properties; active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, useful in chronic skin diseases,leprosy and ulcers; common external application for rheumatism and sprains; warm oil relieves ear, dental and gum troubles; hair oil containing Oil of Margosa prevents baldness and greying of hair. The seeds are good for the treatment of leprosy

FLOWERS : stomachic and tonic; leaves: antifungal, antiperiodic, antiseptic and antiviral; applied-in the form of poultice in boils, abscesses, adenitis, eczema and ulcers; (hot infusion) anodyne for fomenting bruises, sprains and swollen glands; antiseptic; The flowers are bitter; anthelmintic; remove " kapha " and biliousness, in some cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility

LEAVES : are anthelmintic, alexeteric, insecticidal; good in ophthalmia,biliousness, and skin diseases. The tender young leaves are astringent; cause" vata ", good for eye and skin diseases, and in leprosy.The old leaves cure ulcers quickly.

Tender leaves with Piper nigrum used for intestinal helminthiasis; essential oil from the fresh leaves has a mild fungicidal action;

A Strong decoction of the fresh leaves is a slight antiseptic, and is useful like a weak carbolic lotion in washing wounds and ulcers, and syringing out the vaginain the after. treatment of parturition, & the dried leaves powdered are applied locally to the anus of children suffering from intestinal worms

TWIGS : widely used as tooth-brush for its antipyrorrhoeal property; carminative and digestive; bark (stem and root) : antiemetic, antiperiodic, anthelmintic,astringent, hypoglycemic and tonic; useful in anorexia, colic; liver disorders,malaria and sprue, good remedy for pyresis; sap (from the stem tip) : beneficial in consumption, atonic dyspepsia, debility and in skin diseases; refrigerant,nutritive and tonic; Gum is demulcent, stimulant and tonic ,beneficial in catarrh and splenic enlargement.

BARK : is bitter; refrigerant, anthelmintic, maturant, pectoral, astringent; relieves" kapha" and" pittadosha ", vomiting, burning sensation near the heart,fatigue, fever, thirst, bad taste in the mouth, cough; cures ulcers and inflammations; good for leprosy, blood complaints, urinary discharges; recommended for children; causes loss of appetite. The young branches are anthelmintic; good for cough, asthma, piles, tumours.urinary discharges.

The bark is tonic, antiperiodic; useful in amenorrhoea.-

The leaves are carminative and expectorant; lessen inflammation, earache, rheumatism; useful in syphilitic sores, boils, in all blood impurities; a decoction as an earache relieves nose troubles; heals wounds; good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums.-

The bark and the leaves are anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, maturant, and resolvent; useful in leucoderma, lumbago, piles, syphilis, earache; cure all wounds; reduce all inflammations.-

The bark, root-bark, and young fruit are tonic and antiperiodic;

GUM : is a demulcent tonic useful in catarrhal and other aft'eclions accompanied by great. debility. The sap is considered a refrigerant, nutrient and alterative tonic.

It appears to have been of service in some chronic and long-standing cases of leprosy and other skin diseases, consumption, atonic dyspepsia and general debility.

OIL is a useful local remedy in some chronic forms of skin diseases and ulcers, by stimulating and exciting a healthy action.

Applied to foul and sloughing ulcers, it retards the sloughing process to some extent, prevents the production' of maggots, and dislodges them if already produced.

The oil is a universal external appilcation for rheumatism, and is taken internally by women in pregnancy.

The dry nuts possess almost the same medical properties as the oil, but they require to be bruised and mixed with water, .or some other liquid before they can be applied to the skin or ulcers.

The oil from the seeds is bitter; anthelmintic, alterative; good for skin diseases.

When the pustules of small-or cow. pox burst and begin to ulcerate, the Hindu medical practitioners invariably recommend the application of the paste of the fresh margosa leaves two or tree times in the twenty four hours, and speak highly of its healing power. The. use' of- the paste is quite justifiable in many slight and ordinary cases of ulceration from the pustules of small. or cow- pox.




Family Name: Mimosaceae

Botanical Name : Acacia arabica

Vernacular Names: Sans: Babbula; Hind' Babul; Eng : Indian gum arabic tree.


It subdues deranged kapha; astringent, beneficial in skin diseases; anthelmintic; antidotal. Its extract is astringent, subdues pitta and anila (vata); effective in the treatment of blood dysentery, haemorrhagic diseases, polyuria, leucorrhaea, fractures; sheeta (sheetaveerya) and styptic.

Parts Used: Pods, leaves, bark and gum.

Therapeutic Uses:

Pods: decoction beneficial in urinogenital diseases;

Leaves: infusion of tender leaves used as an astringent and remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery;

Bark: decoction used as a gargle in sore throat and toothache; dry powder applied externally in ulcers; useful in vitiated kapha, pitta, ascites,chronic dysentery, diarrhea, leprosy, leucoderma, leucorrhoea, seminal weakness, uterovesiccal disorders, oral ulcers, odontopathy.

Gum: astringent and styptic, useful in vitiated vata, pitta, cough, asthma, diarrhoea, dysentery, seminal weakness, leprosy, uriogenital discharges, burns haemorrhoids, colic.




Family Name: Moraceae

Botanical Name : Ficus bengalensis.

Vernacular Names: Sans: Vata , Hind- bat Eng: Banyan tree.

The plant is kasaya, madhura, sheetaveerya, effective in deranged kapha andpitta; antipyretic; allays burning sensation and trirst; removes delusion, cures ulcers and oedema.

All parts of the p1ant are acrid, sweetish; astringent to the bowels; useful in "kapha ", biliousness, ulcers, erysipelas, vomiting, vaginal complaints, fever, inflammations.-

The milky juice is aphrodisiac, tonic, vulnerary, maturant; lessens inflammation; useful in piles, diseases of the nose, gonorrhoea

Parts used: Seeds, leaves, latex, bark and tender ends of the aerial root.

Therapeutic uses:

Milky juice and seeds are beneficial as local application to pains, sores and ulcers, soles of the feet when crocked or inflamed and in rheumatism.

Leaves are heated and applied as a poultice to abscesses; tender leaves with honey beneficial in ,raktapitta. lnfusion of the bark is consider'" to be a good tonic; effective in diabetes, dysentry , gonorrhoea and in seminal weakness

The leaves are applied, heated as a poultice- to abscesses, and after they have turned yellow are given with roasted rice in decoction as a diaphoretic.

The leaves are vulnerary; useful in biliousness,are good for ulcers; the young leaves for leprosy

Tender ends of the hanging (aerial) roots are antiemetic.
Seeds arecooling and tonic. The seeds are deemed cooling and tonic.

The aerial root is styptic, aphrodisiac; useful in gonorrhoea, syphilis, biliousness, dysentery, inflammation of the' liver.

The milky juice is externally applied for pains and bruises and in rheumatism and lumbago. It is considered as a valuable application to the soles of the feet when cracked or inflamed, and is also applied to the teeth and gums as a remedy for toothache.

An infusion of the' bark is supposed to be a powerful tonic and is considered to have specific properties in' the treatment of . diabetes.

An infusion of the small branches is useful in haemoptysis. The tender ends of the hanging roots are given for obstinate vomiting



Family Name: Anacardiaceae

Botanical Name : Semecarpus anacardium

vernacular Name: Sans- Bhallataka, Hind- Bhela, Eng-Marking nut tree

It is katu ,tikta, kashaya, ushna, anthelmintic, helpful in deranged kapha, vata, intestinal infections, epistasis, polyuria and piles

Parts Used: Fruits and bark.

Therapeutic Uses:

Fruits: in asthma, ascites, epilepsy, neuralgia, psoriasis and rheumatism; as abortifacient and vermifuge; decoction mixed with milk and butter-fat efficacious in asthma, gout, hemiplegia, neuritis, piles, rheumatism, sciatica, and syphilitic complaintskernel is anthelmintic, cardiotonic, carminative and digestive;

The fruit is acrid, hot, sweetish; digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic; stays. looseness of bowels; removes" vata "," kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges; heals ulcers; strengthens the teeth; useful in insanity, asthma.

The rind of the fruit is sweet, oleagenous, digestible, acrid, sharp; stomachic, anthelmintic, laxative; cures " vata ", bronchitis, leprosy, ulcers, ascites, piles, dysentery, tumours, inflammations, fevers; causes ulceration

The sweet fruit is carminative, tonic, aphrodisiac; lessens inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness and paralysis; expels bad humours from the body.

The pulp is tonic; good for piles.

The smoke from the burning pericarp is good for tumours.

The oil is hot and dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic; makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy and other nervous diseases; lessens inflammation; useful in paralysis and superficial pain;

oil used externally in gout, leprosy and leucoderma; bark: brownish gum exudate found useful in nervous disorders.

A brown gum exudes from the bark which regard as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections .

The nut is used internally in asthm, after having been steeped in butter-milk, and is also given as vermifuge., debility and in leprous, scrofulous and venereal affections.





Family Name: Cannainaceae

Botanical Name : Cannabis sativa

vernacular Name: Sans- Bhanga ,Hind - Bhang, Eng - Hemp

parts used- dried leaves, flowering shoots

Properties and uses :

The leaves are bitter, heating, astringent to bowels, tonic, stomachic, useful in kapha, leprosy, cause biliousness, intoxication, hallucinations; excessive use causes indigestion, cough, melancholy, impotence, dropsy, insanity.

Leaves are bitter, astringent, tonic, aphrodisiac, anti diarrhoeic, intoxicating, stomachic, analgesic and abortifacient. They are used in convulsions, otalgia, abdominal disorders, diarrhoea, somatalgia and haematorrhoea. Its excessive use 'causes dyspepsia, cough, impotence, melancholy, dropsy, hyperpraxia and insanity

The inflorescence of the female plant is stomachic, soporific, abortifacient; useful in convulsions; causes thirst, restlessness, intoxication; dulls pain .

The leaves have a bitter, sharp, hot, bad taste; tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiarrhoeic, intoxicating, soporific; cause thirst and biliousness;

oil good for earache.

The bark is tonic; good for hydrocele, inflammations, piles.

The bark is tonic, and is useful in inflammations, haemorrhoids and hydrocele.

Seeds are carminative, astringent, aphrodisiac, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory.

The resin is smoked to allay hiccough and bronchitis




Family Name: Combretaceae

Botanical Name : Terminalia bellirica

vernacular Name: Sans: Bibhitaka; Hind Bahera;; Eng : Bellefic Myroba1an.


It is katu, tikta, kashaya and ushna; pacifies deranged kapha; beneficial for eyes; rejuvinating; rnadhuravipaka and laghu.

Part Used: Fruits.

Therapeutic Uses:

Fruits: antidiarrhoeal, efficacious in dyspepsia; antipyretic, antileprotic and astringent; useful in cough, dropsy, headache, in hoarseness and eye disease

The bark is useful in amemia and leucoderma.-

The fruit is bitter, pungent, acrid; digestible, laxative, anthelmintic, useful in bronchitis, sore throat, biliousness, inflammations, strangury, asthma, and in diseases of the eye, the nose, the heart, and the bladder.

The seed is acrid, intoxicating; useful in thirst, vomiting, bronchitis, corneal ulcers; relieves" vata " .

The fruit is bitter; astringent, tonic, attenuant, aperient, anti. pyretic; useful in dyspepsia, bilious headache, diarrhrea; applied to the eyes, to piles; brain tonic .

The kernel, with that of the marking nut, is sometimes eaten with betel-nut and leaf in dyspepsia;

The fruit also is used as an astringent, usuaI1y in combination with chebulic myrabalans. There is no doubt about the narcotic properties of the kernel. The part used. in medicine is the pulp.
In the Punjab, it is chiefly employed in dropsy, piles, diarrhrea and leprosy; also occasionally in fever.

When half ripe, it is considered purgative, when fully ripe or dried, astringent. Mixed with boney, it is employed as an application in cases of ophthalmia.

The oil is considered a good application for the hair.

The gum is believed to be demulcent and purgative.

Like other kinds of Terminalia, the Beleric myrobalans afford a yellow fixed oil which is prepared by the poorer classes in the Central Provinces and used as a substitute for ghee and as an application for rheumatism.




Family Name: Rutaceae

Botanical Name : Aegle marmelos

vernacular Name: : Sans: Bilva; Hind: Bel;; Eng- Bael tree.

It is madhura, palatable, kashaya; pacifies deranged pitta; guru; be deranged kapha, fever, diarrhoea, appetizing and gastric stimulant. used for the restoration of normal functions of deranged tridosha: laghu, efficacious in rheumatism.
Fruit (unripe) is snigdha, guru, astrgastric stimulant. Ripe fruit is madhura, palatable, guru, katu-tikta ushna, astringent and used in the treatment of deranged tridosha.

Parts Used: Fruits, seeds, leaves, bark and root.

Therapeutic Uses:

Fruits: (ripe) alterative, cooling, laxative and nutritive; useful in habitual constipation, chronic dysentery and dyspepsia; tonic; (unripe) antidiarrhoeal, astringent, demulcent, digestive and stomachic;

Seeds: laxative;

Flowers: antidiarrhoeal and antiemetic; leaves: expectorant, febrifuge; fresh ones used in dropsy; efficacious in bronchial asthma;

Bark (stem and root): beneficial in intermittent fever, melancholia and palpitation of heart; root: one of the ingredients of Dashamula, a common Ayurvedic formulation, particularly useful in loss of appetite and puerperal diseases

The root is sweet; cures fevers due to "tridosha ", pain in the abdomen, palpitations of the heart, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes" vata ", "pitta ", and" kapha".

The leaves are astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; remove vata " and" kapha "; useful in ophthalmia, deafness, and inflammations.-

The flowers allay thirst and vomiting; useful in dysentery. –

The unripe fruit is oily, bitter, acrid, sour; tasty, but difficult to digest ;appetiser, binding; cures dysentery; removes pain.-

The oil is hot and cures" vata ".-

The ripe fruit is acrid, bitter, sweet; appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness. and "tridosha"; removes" vata " and" kapha"; good for the heart .

The ripe fruit is hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxa.tive; good for the heart and the brain; bad for the liver and the chest

The 'unripe fruit is cut up and sun-dried, and in this form is sold in the bazaars in dried whole or broken slices.It is regarded as astringent, digestive and stomachic, and is prescribed in diarrhoea and dysentery, often proving effectual in chronic cases, after all other medicines have failed. It seems especially usefull in chronic diarrhoea; 'a simple change of the hours of meals and an. alteration in the ordinary diet, combined ",with bael fruit, will almost universally succeed.

The small unripe fruit is given with funnel seeds and ginger, in decoction, for piles.

The ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling; and, made into a morning sherbet, cooled with ice, is pleasantly laxative and a good simple cure for dyspepsia.

The dried ripe pulp is astringent and used in dysentery.

The root bark is sometimes made into a decoction and used in the cure of intermittent fever. It .constitutes an ingredient. in the dasamol of ten roots. used in hypochondriasis, melancholia, and palpitation of the heart."

The leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia, and the fresh juice diluted is praised in catarrhs and feverishness.

The fresh juice of the leaves is given, with the addition of b1ack pepper, in anasarca, with costiveness and jaundice. In external inflammations, the juice of

the leaves is given internally to remove the supposed derangement of humours.

The expressed juice of the leaves is used in ophthalmia and other eye affections.

decoction of the leaves is valued in asthmatic complaints. A hot poultice to the head is used in delirium of fevers.
A water, distilled from the flowers, is said to be aledipharmic.
A decoction of the root of Aegle Marmelos is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhrea and gastric irritability in infants





Family Name: Scrophulariaceae

Botanical Name : Bacopa monnieri

vernacular Name: Sans- Brahmi ,Hind - Barami , Eng – Thyme leaved gratiola


Parts used—whole olant

Properties and uses

The plant is astringent, bitter, sweet, cooling, laxative, intellect promoting, carminative, digestive , anti inflammatory, anticonvulsant, depurative, cardiotonic, bronchodilator, diuretic, sudorific.

Useful in vitiated kapha, vata, biliousness, beuralgia, inflammations, epilepsy, insanity, tumours, asthma, bronchitis, splenomegaly, ascitis, dyspepsia, skin diseses, leucoderma,syphilis, elephantiasis, dysmenorrhoea, sterility and general debility.



Family Name: Asteraceae

Botanical Name : Eclipta alba

vernacular Name: Sans- Bhangra ,Hind - Bhringaraja , Eng – Trailing eclipta


parts used—whole plant

properties and uses :

The plant has a bitter hot sharp dry taste: fattening, alterative,. anthelmintic. alexipharmic: good for the complexjon of the hair. the eyes, the teeth; cures inflammation; hernias. eye diseases. "kapha" and "vata ", bronchitis, ,asthma. leucoerma. anemia.,diseases of the heart and the skin. itching. night.blindness. ,syphilis: used to prevent abortion and miscarriage. and for uterine pains after delivery.

The plant has a bitter sharp taste: improves the colour of the hair and the lustre of the eye.tonic, expectorant. antipyretic, stomachic; good for diseases of the spleen. Stomatitis, tooth ache headache. hemicrania. fevers. internal diseases. pain in the liver cures vertigo.

It is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and splenic enlargements, and in various chronic skin diseases. There is a popular opinion that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn the hair black.

The fresh juice of the leaves is rubbed on the shaven scalp for the purpose of promoting the growth of hair. Use of the juice in combination with aromatics, as a tonic and deobstruent, and give two drops of it with eight drops of honey to new.born children, suffering from catarrh., it is used externally for ulcers, and as an antiseptic for wounds in cattle.

The fresh plant is applied with sesamum oil in elephantiasis, and the expressed juice in affections of the liver and dropsy. When used in large doses, it acts as an emetic. It is also considered cooling.

It is anodyne and absorbent, and relieves headache when applied with a little oil.

The juice of the leaves is given in one teaspoonful doses in jaundice and fevers.



Family Name: Santalaceae

Botanical Name : Santalum album

vernacular Name: Sans- Chandana ,Hind - Chandana , Eng - Sandal wood

Parts used—heart wood

Properties and uses :

The heart wood is bitter, sweet, aromatic, deodorant, intellect promoting, cardio tonic, diaphoretic, aphrodisiac, haemostatic, antipyretic, restorative and tonic.it is useful in in vitiated conditions of pitta, burning sensation, cephalalgia, foul odour due to hyperhidrosis, skin diseases, leprosy, cardiac debility, hyper acidity, jaundice, haemoptysis, cough, bronchitis, onflammations, cystitis, dysentery, gastric irritability, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, spermatorrhoea, intermittent fever and general debility.

The wood is bitter; cooling, dry; exhilarating, alexiteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, useful in diseases of the heart, "kapha ", thirst, biliousness, burning sensation, cold in the head, strangury, bronchitis, vaginal discharges, smallpox

The wood has a bitter bad taste; tonic to the heart, and the brain; astringent to the. bowels, laxative; useful in inflammations, gleet, gonorrhrea, headache

The wood, ground up with water into a paste, is commonly applied to local inflammations, to the temples in fevers, and to skin diseases to allay heat and pruritus.

It also acts as a. diaphoretic. In cases of morbid thirst, the powder of the wood is recommended to be taken in cocoanut water.

A bolus of ground sandal checks haemoptysis in its mild. form, when taken twice a day for two or three days.

The seeds contain an oil which is used in skin diseases.

The wood is considered diuretic and antipyretic.

The wood is mixed with salt, and applied to wounds.




Family Name: Gentianaceae

Botanical Name : Plumbago zeylanica

vernacular Name: Sans- Chitraka ,Hind - Chitrak , Eng - Ceylon leadwort


Parts used—whole plant

Properties and uses--

The root and root bark are bitter, hot, dry, stomachic, carminative, astringent to the bowels, anthelmintic, cure intestinal troubles, dysentery, leucoderma, inflammation, piles, bronchitis"vata" and" kapha ", itching, diseases of the liver, consumption, ascites, " tridosha "; good in amemia

The root has a bitter sharp taste; bechic, laxative, expectorant, stomachic, tonic, abortifacient, alexipharmic; good appetiser; useful in laryngitis, rheumatism, diseases of the spleen, leucoderma, ringworm, scabies.-

The leaves are caustic, vesicant, aphrodisiac; good for scabies

The root of P. zeylanics is said to increase the digestive power, to promote the appetite, and to be useful in dyspepsia, piles, anasarca, diarrhoea, skin diseases, etc.

For external administration, it is made into a past" with milk, vinegar or salt and water. Such a paste may be applied externally in leprosy and

other skin diseases of an obstinate character, and be allowed to remain until a blister has formed.

A tincture of the root-bark has been employed as an antiperiodic.
It acts as a powerful sudorific.

The milky juice is used as an application to unhealthy ulcers and in cases of scabies.

The root is used as a leprosy remedy.

The powdered material is taken internally and applied locally.



Family Name: . Gossypium herbaceum

Botanical Name : Malvaceae

vernacular Name: Sans: Karpashi; Hind: Rui; Eng : Levant cotton.


Cotton plant is madhura, sheela (sheetaveerya), galactogogue, efficacious in deranged pitta and kapha; allays thirst; alleviates burning sensation and fatigue; beneficial in vertigo and syncope; invigorating.

Parts Used: Seeds, leaves, root and root-bark.

Therapeutic Uses:

Seeds: demulcent, mild laxative, galactagogue, abortifacient, aphrodisiac, nervine tonic and useful in headache; leaves: juice amidysenteric; decoction finds special application in fever and diarrhoea; rool . diuretic; pasted with dehusked rice-water given in leucorrhoea; root-bark : emmenagogue and galactagogue.



Family Name: Berberidaceae

Botanical Name : Berberis aristata

Vernacular Name-, Sans; Daruharidra; Hind: Darhald; Eng : Indian barberry,


It is tikta, katu, ushnaveerya; applied in the treatment of septic wounds and polyuria, pruritus, erysipelas and diseases of skin, eye and ear; antidotal

Parts used: Fruits, stem and root-bark.

Therapeutic uses:

Paste of root-bark finds external application for healing ulcers.

Extract prepared from root-bark is used as a local application in affected parts of the eyelids and in chronic ophthalmia.

The tincture of the root is used against intermittent fever and considered to be advantageous over quinine and cinchona since it does not produce deafness or cardiac depression.

The decoction is particularly useful in the enlargement of liver and spleen associated with malarial fever. It is also used for fever accompanied by diarrhoea.

Root combined with opium, rocksalt and alum is considered to be an useful anti-inflammatory agent.

In bleeding piles, application of powdered root mixed with butter is beneficial. "Rasauf' of the rootprepared withis found useful in stomatitis and leucorrhoea.

Decoction of stem mixed with that of curcuma longa is recommended in'gonorrhoea.

Bark juice is useful in jaundice.

Fruits are edible and prescribed as a mild laxative for children,




Family Name: Solanaceae

Botanical Name : Datura metel Linn.

vernacular Name: Sans-Datturah ,Hind -Dhattura , Eng –Thorn apple

Parts used: whole plant

Properties and uses:

The plant is acrid, narcotic, anodyne, anti-spasmodic, intoxicant and emetic, and is useful in asthma, cough, fever, ulcers and skin diseases,

The roots are used to treat bites from rabid dogs and are also used to cure insanity,

The leaves are narcotic, anodyne and antispasmodic.

A poultice made out of the leaves is used for ophthalmodynia, otalgia, lumbago, sciatica, neuralgia, mumps and painful swellings.
The juice of the leaves is used for epilepsy, cephalalgia and dandruff,

The seeds are aphrodisiac, narcotic and antispasmodic, and are useful in dontalgia, otalgia, gastropathy and skin diseases, and are good to treat dandruff and lice,

The seeds have an acrid, bitter. sharp. taste; heating, tonic, febrifuge, anthelmintic, alexiteric.. emetic; useful in leucoderma, skin diseases, ulcers, itching, bronchitis, biliousness, jaundice, piles .

The whole plant is toxic, narcotic, aphrodisiac; applied topically it removes the pain of tumours and piles.-

The leaves after roasting are applied locally to relieve eye pain, headache, nose trouble, enlargement of the testicle, and boils

The root is useful in reducing inflammation.-

The seeds are narcotic, febrifuge, anthelmintic; good in inflammations, painful piles, biliousness; cause headache

The leaves and the seeds are antispasmodic, anodyne, narcotic.
They act similarly to Belladonna, and do not constipate.

The inhalation of the smoke from the burning leaves is recommended for relieving attacks of asthma. It is a better cough remedy than opium, as it does not arrest secretions.

The young fruits are said to be sedative and slightly intoxicating.
The mixed leaves with wine or powdered rice and saffron, and apply them externally for various pains and swellings. They are heated over a torch until smoked, and then apply them as a poultice over the spleen in intermittent fever.

The root is powdered and applied to the gums in order to relieve the pain of toothache.

The flowers are dried and roughly powdered with or without the leaves and rolled into cigarettes for the relief of asthma.

The green fruit is pounded and applied to carbuncles

The warm leaves are applied topically in sciatica. some use the leaf to blister the skin over inflammations where there is no open sore. The former apply the leaf for the relief of headache.

Some apply a warmed pad of the leaf to painful and swollen parts, and a similar poultice to ingrowing tow-nails and to burns. In former times the fresh warmed leaf or the vapour of an infusion of the leaf was applied particularly to relieve the pain of rheumatism and gout.

An ointment containing the juice of the leaf and young shoots for application to running sores.

A poultice of the leaf was formerly applied to carcinomatous ulcers.

The smoke from the burning leaf is inhaled for the relief of asthma and bronchitis




Family Name: pinaceae

Botanical Name : Cedrus deodara

vernacular Name: Sans- Devadaru ,Hind - Deyodar , Eng -Deodar


Parts used: leaves, heartwood, oil

Properties and uses:

The leaves are bitter, acrid and thermogenic, and are useful in inflammations and tubercular glands.

The heartwood 'is bitter, acrid, thermogenic, emolient, anodyne, anthelmintic, digestive, carminative, cardiotonic, galacto-puriller, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant, diaphoretic, antiseptic, laxative and febrifuge, and is useful in inflammation dyspepsia, cephalalgia, haemorrhoids, insomnia, epilepsy, hiccough, bronchitis, tubercular glands, diabetes, urethrorrhea, renal and vesical calculi, elephantiasis, fever, cardiac disorders, leucoderma, skin diseases, proctoptosis and vitiated conditions of villa and kapha.

The oil is antiseptic, diaphoretic, depurative and diuretic, and is useful in leprosy, syphilis, skin diseases, wounds and ulcers, fever and strangury.




Family Name: Lythraceae

Botanical Name : Woodfordiafruticosa

vernacular Name: Sans: Dhataki; Hind: Dhai;; Eng : Fire-flame bush.

: It is katu, ushna, intoxicating, antodotal, beneficial in dysentery , diarrhoea ,efficacious in erysipelas and ulcer.

Part Used: Flowers.

Therapeutic Uses:

Flowers: (dried) astringent; useful in dysentery :haemorrhoids, impaired hepatic function, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia and considered as a safe stimulant in pregnancy, they are useful in vitiated kapha, pitta, leprosy, skin diseases, burning sensation, haemorrhages, diarrhea, dysentery, foul ulcers, diabetes, hepatopathy, it is an important ingredient in Asava and Arista as they aid in fermentation.



Family Name: Euphorbiaceae

Botanical Name : Ricinus cummunis

vernacular Name: Sans: Shweteranda; Hind:Eranda Eng: Castor

It is katu, ushna, beneficial in deranged vata, kapha ,fever, cough and used in the purification of mercury.

Parts Used: Seeds, leaves and root-bark.

Therapeutic Uses: Seeds:

"Castor oil" derived from the seeds is a well-known purgative ; leaves: anodyne and galactogogue; externally applied to boils and sores in the form of poultice; root-bark: emetic, purgative, beneficial in lumbago and skin diseases.

The root is sweetish, heating; carminative; useful in inflammations, pains, ascites, fever, glands, asthma, eructations, bronchitis, leprosy, diseases of the rectum, and the head.-

The leaves are useful in "vata" and" kapha ", intestinal worms, strangury, night blindness, earache; increase biliousness.-The flowers are useful in glandular tumours, anal troubles, vaginal pain.-

The fruit is heating and an appetiser; ilseful in tumours, pains, "vata ", piles, diseases of the liver and spleen.-The seed is cathartic and aphrodisiac.-

The oil is sweetish; cathartic, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, alterative; useful in tumours, diseases of the heart, slow fevers, ascites, inflammations, typhoid, pain in the tack, lumbago, leprosy, elephantiasis, convulsions; increases" kapha"; causes biliousness .
The root bark is purgative, alterative; good in skin diseases.

The leaves are galactagogue; good for burns.-

The seeds and the oil from them have a bad taste; purgative; useful in liver troubles, pains in. the body, lumbago, boils, piles, ringworm, paralysis, inflammations, ascites, asthma, rheumatism, dropsy, amenorrhoea

The leaf is applied to the head to relieve headache, and is common1y used as a poultice for boils. the seeds and the oil from the seeds are used as a purgative

The oil is expressed and used medicinally; and a fomentation is made with the leaves to cure wounds. it is used as an ointment for sores, the leaves; are used

for fomentations; they are bound over boils, and are a good cure, the leaves are boiled and used as a febrifuge.

An infusion of the leaf is remedy for stomach-ache.. some apply a paste of the root in toothache,

The bark is used by natives for stitching up wounds, and as a dressing for wounds and sores..

some apply the powdered roasted seeds to sores, boils, etc., in children.

The foliage is considered emmenagogue, the root-bark purgative, and the leaf useful as a local application in rheumatism.

The local application of the leaf to the mammae is said to produce a powerful galactagogic action.

The bruised leaves are used for caries of the teeth and given with water for colic , the leaves are considered lactagogue and are given in infusion or applied to the breasts. the leaves are applied to the breasts to help the secretion of milk.

Soaked in vinegar they are applied to the foreehead in cases of sunstroke. They act as a powerful sudorific




Family Name: Zygophyllaceae

Botanical Name : Tribulus. terrestris

vernacular Name: Sans: Gokshura; Hind: Chhotagokhru;; Eng : Puncture-Vine.


It is sheetala, svadu, invigorating; useful in the treatment of urinary affection: madhura; gastric stimulant, aphrodisiac; nutritive; used in the treatment of urinary ca1culii, polyuria, dyspnoea, cough, piles, dysuria, heart disease; pacifies deranged vata.

Parts Used: Fruits, leaves, stem and root.

Therapeutic Uses:

Fruits (dried) : aphrodisiac, demulcent, diuretic and tonic; decoction/infusion efficacious in chronic cystitis, gonorrhoea, gout, gravel. impotence, kidney diseases and painful micturition; one of the ten ingredients of Dashamula;

leaves: in affections of urinary calculii, stomachic; stem: astringent, infusion useful in gonorrhoea; root: aperient, demulcent and tonic; an ingredient of Dashamula kwatha, a well-known Ayurvedic preparation for urinary troubles and impotence.

The root and fruit are sweetish; cooling; tonic, fattening, aphrodisiac, alterative; improve appetite; useful in strangury, urinary discharges, vesicular calculi, pruritus ani; alleviate burning sensation; reduce inflammation; remove .. tridosha," cough, asthma, pain; cure, skin and heart diseases, piles, leprosy.-

The leaves are aphrodisiac and purify the bIood.-

The seeds are cooling, fattening, diuretic aphrodisiac; remove inflammations, urinary troubles, stones in the bladder.-

The ashes are sweet 'cooling, aphrodisiac; cure" vatapurify the blood

The fruit is sour with a bad taste; :diuretic; removes gravel from the urine and stone in the bladder; cures strangury, gleet.-

The leaves are diuretic; tonic; enrich the blood; increase the menstrual flow; cure gonorrhoea and gleet; a decoction is useful as a gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums; reduce inflammation.-

The root is a good stomachic and appetiser: emmenagogue, diuretic carminative; cures lumbago .

The fruits are regarded as cooling, diuretic, tonic and aphrodisiac, and are used in painful micturition, calculous affections, urinary, disorders and impotence.

An infusion" made from the fruit has been found very useful as a diuretic in gout, kidney disease and gravel;, also used largely as anaphrodisiac..

The fruit is reputed tonic and astringent. It is used for coughs, spermatorrhoea, scabies, anemia, ophthalmia; it is a powerful hemootatic, much used in postpartum haemorrhage and in dysenteries;as a gargle it is prescribed for ulcers of the gums, inflammation of the mouth, aphthae, and angina.

The entire plant, but more particularly the fruits, are used in medicine. They possess cooling, diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties and are used in dysuria, urinary disorders, calculus affections, and impotency. .



Family Name: Menispermaceae

Botanical Name : Tinospora cardifolia

Vernacular Names: Sans Guruchi; Hind: Amrita


The plant is guru, ushnaveerya, tikta, kasaya, antipyretic, beneficial in burning swnsation, pain, vomiting, dyscrasia, vitiated vata, polyuria, anaemia and vertigo

Parts used: Leaves and stem.

Therapeutic uses :

The stem is bitter, astringent, sweet, thermogenic, antispasmodic, anti inflammatory , antipyretic, digestive, carminative, appetizer, stomachic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac, rejuvenating, galacto-purifier, useful in vitiated, vata, burning sensation, dyspepsia, flatulence, intermittent fever, inflammations, gout, vomiting, cardiac debility, jaundice, anaemia, seminal weakness, asthma, cough, uropathy, splenopathy, skin diseases and general debility.

Stem-juice is valued in high fever and also given in jaundice either alone or mixed with honey.

Decoction of the stem is used for rheumatic fever and vomiting due to excessive bile secretion; slow fever associated with cough is arrested by the administration of its decoction mixed with Piper longum (fruits) and honey.

Stem, pasted with a little ginger, is prescribed in urticaria.

In combination with the stem of Piper nigrum and honey it is useful to control heart palpitation due to flatulency; stem-juice found beneficial in elephantiasis

A kind of starch, called 'Palo', prepared from the aqueous extract of dried stem, is considered to have antacid, antidiarrhoeal and antidysenteric properties.

Leaves of the plant are rich in protein, calcium and phosphorus with no toxic effect and as such prescribed in fever. Aqueous extract of the plant is a fabrifuge.



Family Name: Burseraceae

Botanical Name : Balsamodendron mukul

vernacular Name: Sans Guggulu,Hind –Guggul ,Eng –Indian Bdellium tree


It is vishada, tikta and ushnaveerya; aggravates pitta; sara, kashaya, katu, katu-vipaka, ruksha and (highly) laghu; useful in the union of fracture; aphrodisiac, sukshma; corrects hoarseness; rejuvinating; gastric stimulant, picchila, invigorating; pacifies vitiated kapha and vata; beneficial in the treatment of ulcer, adenitis, obesity, polyuria, urinary calculii, gout, fatigue, rheumatoid arthritis, septic ulcer, oedema, piles, scrofula and worms.

Part Used: Gum

Therapeutic Uses:

Gum: alterative, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic. antispasmodic, anti suppurative, aperient, aphrodisiac, appetizing, astringent. carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, ecbolic, emmenagogue, expectorant; useful in amenorrhoea, anaemia, endometritis, .' leucorrhoea,. manorrhagia, nervous diseases, rheumatism, scrofulous affections and skin diseases,

Particularly applied in indolent ulcer and bad wounds; specially recommended in the treatment of lipid and urinary disorders, obesity, in marasmus of children and in rheumatoid arthritis;

Inhalation of the fumes of burnt guggul beneficial in chronic bronchitis, acute and chronic nasal catarrh, laryngitis and tuberculosis.

Guggulipid, the ethylacetate extract of the gum, has recently been established, as an effective hypolipidaemic as well as an anti-inflammatory agent in certain types of hypercholesterolaemia.



Family Name: Papilionoideae

Botanical Name : Abrus precatorius

Vernacular names Sans-Gunja, Hindi Ratti ,Eng Crabs eye


Both the red and white varieties of the seeds find use as a hair tonic; beneficial in deranged vata and pitta, fever, xerostomia, vertigo, bronchial asthma, thirst, syncope, opthalmia; aphrodisiac and invigorating; useful in pruritus and ulcer; beneficial in the treatment of worms, alopecia and skin diseases. Roots are emetic and leaves are anticolic and antidotal.

Parts Used: Seeds, leaves and root.

Therapeutic Uses:

SEEDS purgative, emetic, tonic, antiphlogistic, aphrodisiac and used in nervous disorders; abortifacient; paste as local application in stiffness of shoulder joints, sciatica and paralysis;

Internally, the seeds are described as poisonous and useful in affections of the nervous system, and, externally, in skin diseases, ulcers, affections of the hair, etc.

The seeds reduced to a paste are recommended to be applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of the shoulder joint, paralysis, and other nervous diseases.

In white leprosy, a paste composed or the seed and plumbago root is applied as a stimulant dressing. In alopecia a paste of the seed- is recommended to be rubbed on the bare scalp.

The seeds are used as a purgative,but in large doses are an acrid poison, given rise to symptoms resembling those of cholera.

Taken internally by women, the seed - disturbs the uterine functions and prevents conception.

The powdered seeds are taken as snuff in cases of violent headache arising from

cold. Reduced to a paste they are used for contusions and inflammations.

Deprived of their outer coating and powdered with sugar-candy they are swallowed to expel intestinal worms.

LEAVES--: decoction used for cough, cold and colic pain; fresh juice mixed with a bland oil applied to painful swelling; in leucoderma (admixed with Plumbago zeylanica root) and in biliousness, itching and other skin diseases;

The juice of the green leaves is taken for purifying the blood.
If the leaves are steeped in warm mustered oil and applied over the seat of pain in rheumatism much benefit will be derived.

The juice of the fresh leaves, mixed with some bland oil, and applied externally, seems to relieve local pain

FRUIT--is bitter, acrid; aphrodisiac, tonic, toxic; Causes "kapha "; removes biliousness; improves taste and completion; useful in eye diseases; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases, wounds.

The fruit is acrid with a bad taste; tonic to the brain and the body, aphrodisiac

ROOT AND LEAVES-- have the same properties as the fruit, and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma. thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of the teeth

Leaves and root also used as substitute for liquorice in cattaral affections and cough.

The root and leaves are sweet with flavour; their properties and those of the oil are the same as the properties of the fruit

The root is_considered emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is uaeful in relieving obstinate coughs. the root is taken for sore throat and rheumatism;

Root: tonic, diuretic emetic, alexeteric; used in preparation for gonorrhoea, jaundice, haemoglobinuric bile



Family Name: Combretaceae

Botanical Name : Terminalia chebula

vernacular Name: Sans: Haritaki; Hind: Harra;; Eng : Chebulic Myrobalan.


It is madhura, amla, tikta, katu, kashaya (pancharasa); purgative and devoid of lavanarasa; useful in gastrointestinal disorders; rejuvenating; cures ophthalmia, dermatosis and is an adjuvant.

Parts Used: Fruits and bark.

Therapeutic Uses:

Fruits: alterative, astringent, laxative, stomachic and tonic.Cold infusion as a gargle in stomatitis and used in chronic ulcers, carious teeth; in cough, asthma, urinary diseases; highly efficacious in chronic diarrhoea, dysentery and flatulence.

Triphala (Belleric rnyrobellans, Ernbelic rnyrobalans and Chebulic rnyrobalans) is an important Ayurvedic formulation used in the treatment of liver and kidney dysfunctions; bark: cardiotonic.

The fruit is dry and heating; stomachic, tonic, carminative, expectorant, anthelmintic, antidysenteric. alterative; useful in asthma, sore throat, thirst, vomiting, hiccough, eye diseases, diseases of the heart and the bladder, strangury, vesicular calculi, urinary discharges, ascites, biliousness, inflammations, tumours, bleeding piles, typhoid fever, leucoderma, dyspnoea, itching, pain, constipation, anaemia, gout, elephantiasis, delirium

The unripe fruit is astringent and aperient, useful in dysentry and diarrhoea.-

The ripe fruit is purgative, tonic, carminative; enriches the blood; good in ophthalmia, diseases of the spleen, piles, cold in the head; strengthens the brain, the eye, the gums; used in paralysis .
The fruits are used as a medicine for sore-throat, A fruit, finely powdered, is used as dentifrice.to be useful in carious teeth, bleeding and ulcerations

A fruit, coarsely powdered and smoked in a pipe, affords relief in a fit of asthma. A decoction of the fruit is a good astringent wash.

A fine paste, obtained by rubbing the fruit on a rough stone with little water, mixed with the carron oil of the Pharmacopoeia and applied to burns and scalds, effects a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used.

Water in which the fruits are kept for the night is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores.



Family Name:Valerianaceae

Botanical Name : Nardostachys Jatamansi

vernacular Name: Sans- Jatamansi ,Hind - Jatamansi , Eng - Spikenard

Parts used –rhizome

Properties and uses

The roots are acrid, bitter, with a flavour; fattening, tonic, cooling, antipyretic, alexipharmic; cure" tridosha ", "kapha", biliousness, diseases of the blood, burning sensation, erysipelas.. leprosy, skin diseases, throat troubles, ulcers; improve the complexion

The roots have a bitter sharp taste; tonic, stimulant, diuretic, emplenagogue, carminative, pectoral, stomachic, laxative; increase the lustre of the eyes; promote the growth and blackness of the hair; useful in gleet, cough, pain in the chest, intestinal inflammation, kidney and lumbar troubles; dry wounds; increase the appetite

The roots are aromatic and bitter in taste. They are supposed to possess tonic, stimulant, and antispasmodic properties, and are often employed in the treatment of epilepsy, hysteria, and convulsive affections. Used in palpitation of the heart., the rhizome is considered useful in epilepsy andhysteria. This plant is said to possess all the properties of the officinal Valedan.

It is said to be antispasmodic and useful in intestinal colic. It enters .into the composition of a compound powder which is burnt and used for inhalation in bronchial affections.

A tincture of it was used in the out-patient department in intestinal colic and flatulence, and found to give relief in those complaints




Family Name: Celastraceae

Botanical Name : Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

vernacular Name:. : Sans: Jyotishmatee; Hind: Maikangni


It is katu, tikta and sara; beneficial in deranged kapha and samira (vata).ushna, emetic, teekshna, gastric stimulant; promotes intelligence and memory.

Parts Used: Seeds and bark.

Therapeutic Uses:

Seeds are acrid, bitter, emollient, intellect promoting, digestive ,laxative, useful in vitiated vata , kapha, abdominal disorders, leprosy, pruritus, skin diseases, paralysis,cardiac debility, for stimulating the intellect and sharpening the memory.,alterative, antirheumatic, aphrodisiac; laxative and nervine tonic;decoction beneficial in gout, leprosy and paralysis:

oil is rubefacient and stimulant; efficacious in beri-beri and oedema; improves memory;, intellect promoting, in abdominal disorders, and sores

The bark is depurative, brain tonic

Leaves are emmenagogue and leaf sap is a good antidote in opium poisoning.



Family Name: Caesalpiniaceae

Botanical Name : Bauhinia variegata

vernacular Name: Sans-kanchanara ,Hind - kancanar ,


Parts used—roots and bark

The roots and bark are astringent, acrid, cooling, constipating, depurative, anthelmintic, vulnerary, anti-inflammatory and styptic. They are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta and kapha, diarrhoea, dysentery, skin diseases, leprosy, intestinal worms, tumours, wounds, ulcers, inflammations, scrofula, proctoptosis, hacmorrhoids, haemoptysis, cough, menorrhagia and diabetes

Properties and uses--

These are two varieties red and white The bark of both is tonic astringent

1 the red flowered variety—the bark is acrid, cooling, laxative, appetising, astringent to bowels in some doses; cures biliousness, "kapha" and" vata ", ulcers, tuberculous glands, leprosy.-

The flowers are acrid, dry, sweet; cooling, astringent, galactagogue; cure diseases of the blood, bronchitis, consumption, vaginal discharges, biliousness, headache, "tridosha".-

2. Whiteflowered variety:- The bark is acrid, sweet; appetising, cooling, astringent to the bowels; cures biliousness, "ka pha ", leucoderma, anal troubles, tuberculous glands, cough, asthma, diseases of the blood, ulcers, vaginal discharges; anthelmintic; used in strangury, thirst, burning sensation .

The bark is astringent to the bowels, tonic to the liver, cures bilousness, leucoderma, leprosy, dysmenorrhrea, menorrhagia impurities of the blood, tuberculous glands, asthma, wounds and ulcers; used as a gargle in stomatitis.-

The buds are acrid; indigestible; used in piles, cough, eye diseases, liver complaints; astringent to the bowels, styptic in hrematuria and menorrhagia

The juice of the fresh bark with the juice of the flowers of Strobilanthes citrata, 10 tolas of each, is given as an expectorant, and the bark 'is used with ginger as an internal remedy for scrofula.

The root in decoction is given in dyspepsia and flatulency; the flowers with sugar as a gentle laxative; and the bark, flowers, root triturated in rice water as a cataplasm to promote suppuration.

The dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. They are considered cool and astringent, and are useful in diarrhoea and worms.




Family Name: Solanaceae

Botanical Name : Solanum xanthocarpum

vernacular Name: Sans- Kantakari ,Hind -Kateli , Eng – Yallow berried nightshade

Parts used: whole plant

Properties and uses:

The plant is bitter, acrid, thermogenic, anthelmintic.
anti-inflammatory, anodyne, digestive, carminative, appetiser, stomach depurative, sudorific, febrifuge, expectorant, laxative, stimulant, dime, rejuvenating, emmenagogue and aphrodisiac.

It is useful in vitiated conditions of velta and kapha, helminthiasis, dental caries, inflammatio arthralgia, flatulence, colic, constipation, dyspepsia, anorexia, leprosy, .skin diseases, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, fever, cough, asthma. bronchitis, pharyngitis, hiccough, strangury, urolithiasis, amenorrhoea. dysmenorrhoea, lumbago, haemorrhoids, cardiac disorders, rhinopathy : epilepsy and catarrh.

The root is pungent, bitter, heating; appetiser, laxative, stomachic, anthelmintic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, fever, "vata ", and" kapha", ozrena, strangury, lumbago, pains, piles, thirst, urinary concretions, and diseases of the heart.-

The fruit is bitter, digestible; improves the appetite;. good in diseases of the heart, pruritus, asthma, fever; anthelmintic, anaphrodisiac; causes biliousness .

The root is an aphrodisiac.

The leaves are a good application for piles.

The fruit has a bitter bad taste; laxative; good in inflammations, chronic bronchitis, asthma, biliousness, fevers, muscular pains, dysuria, stone in the bladder, sterility in women.

The seeds are anthelmintic;' good for boils, scabies, asthma, and cough

The root is much esteemed as an expectorant, and is used in cough, asthma, catarrhal fever and pain in the chest. Kantikari is used in medicine in various forms, such as decoction, electuary, ghrita, etc.

A decoction of the root is given with the addition of long pepper and honey, in cough and catarrh, and with rock salt and assafretida in spasmodic cough.

The roots beaten up and mixed with wine are given to check vomiting. The juice of berry is also useful in sore throat.

The stems, flowers and fruit are bitter and carminative, and are prescribed in those forms of the burning of the feet , which are attended with a vesicular, watery eruption.

Fumigations with the vapour of the burning seeds of this plant are in high repute in the cure of toothache. It acts as a powerful sialogogue, and by this means probably relief is obtained.



Family Name: Fabaceae

Botanical Name : Mucuna pruriens

Vernacular names Sans -kapikacchu:Hind –Kiwach, Eng –Cowhage

The plant is svadu rasa (madhura rasa); promotes virility; beneficial in deranged vata and in emaciation, urticaria, dyscrasia and septic wounds.

Parts Used: Pods, seeds and root

Therapeutic Uses:

Pods: anthelmintic; seeds: aphrodisiac and nerve tonic.

Vanari vatika, a pill prepared from the powdered decorticated seeds after being boiled in cow's milk, then fried in butter fat and mixed with sugar and subsequently steeped in honey is considered to be the best aphrodisiac in Ayurveda (Nadkami); the pills also find application in leucorrhoea, menorrhagia and in paralysis;

Root: nerve tonic and diuretic; decoction beneficial in urinary troubles and delirium in fevers; strong infusion mixed with honey efficacious in cholera; powder made into a paste applied to the body in dropsy; an ointment from the roots used in elephantiasis.

The root is given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. The root acts as an emmenagogue; its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens the pain

The fruit is sweet, bitter; aphrodisiac, tonic; cures blood diseases, " vata", consumption, biliousness, indolent ulcers.

The seeds are aphrodisiac; cure" vata"

The leaves are aphrodisiac, tonic, anthelmintic; lessen inflammations; improve the blood; juice given for headache.

The seeds are; laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic; useful in gonorrhrea

The root is prescribed as a remedy for delirium in fever. Powdered and made into a paste, it is applied to the body in dropsy, a piece of the root being also tied to the wrist and ankle.

A decoction of the root is reckoned a powerful diuretic and cleanser of the kidney, and also made into an ointment for elephantiasis. Leaves are applied to ulcers.

A vinous infusion of the pods is said to be a certain remedy for dropsy.

The pods are used as an anthelmintic.



Family Name: Lauraceae

Botanical Name : Cinnamomum camphora

Vernacular names sans –Karpur , hindi-karpur ,Eng –camphor tree

Camphor is sheetaveerya (sheetala), laghu, madhura, tikta; fragrant; promotevirility, beneficial to eyes; reduces body weight; helpful in restoring deranged kapha and pitta; antidotal; removes burning sensation, thirst, foetid and fat; deodorant; anticonvulsant; hypnotic, diaphoretic, analgesic; pacifies sexual urge; sperrnatopoetic.

Parts used: Leaves and wood.

Therapeutic uses:

The camphor is aromatic, bitter, skin and cardiac stimulant, antiseptic, aphrodisiac. It is useful in vitiated vata, inflammations, cardiac debility, cough, asthma, convulsions, dyspepsia, diarrhea and dysentery.

Plant is considered to be stimulant, carminative, exectorant, anthelmintic, antiseptic and anodyne; used also in insecticidal preparation

Camphor vapour when inhaled is found efficacious in cold ,

Ointment prepared by dissolving camphor in olive oil is used extensively in external application as a counter-irritant in muscular strain rheumatism and inflammation.,




Family Name: Mimosoideae

Botanical Name : Acacia catechu

Vernacular Names: Sans' Khadira; Hind Khayer; Eng : Cutch tree.

It is tiktarasa, sheela (sheetaveerya); subdues pitta, and kapha; digestive; useful in the treatment of skin disease, cough, dyscrasia, oedema, pruritus andulcer.

Parts used: Bark and heartwood.

Therapeutic Uses:

Bark: astringent; useful in passive diarrhoea either alone or with combination with cinnamon or opium; decoction given internally in leprosy, heartwood: the concentrated aqueous extract known as khayer gum or cuteh is cooling and digestive; beneficial in cough and diarrhoea;applied externally to ulcers, boils and eruptions of the skin; used extensively in formulations.

Bark is bitter and acrid; cooling, astringent to the bowels, antihelmintic, antidysenteric, antipyretic; cures itching, sore throat, bronchitis, indigestion, heaviness, ulcers, boils, psoriasis, inflammations,leprosy, anaemia, leucoderma; given in elephantiasis, urinary discharges; strengthens the teeth.-

Catechu is acrid and bitter; hot, astringent to the bowels, anthelmintic. tonic, aphrodisiac; cures .. kapha" and;; vat a ", ulcers, diseases of the throat, urinary and vaginal discharges, leucorrhoea, leucoderma, piles, erysepelas; cures troubles of the mouth; gives taste; increases appetite; strengthens the teeth
,the juice of the fresh bark is given with assafretid, in haemoptysis, and the flowering tops with cumin, milk and sugar, in gonorrhoea

Mixed with aromatics it is used in melancholia; powdered and mixed with water it is used in conjunctivitis.

It is valued in native practice as a remedy in chest affections. It is thought to promote expectoration.

Kathbol is a mixture of catechu and myrrh, given to women after confinement as a tonic, and to promote the secretion of milk.

The extract known as Catechu or Catch is used medicinally as an astringent in fevers and other maladies. It is peculiarly useful in diarrhoea, with pyrosis, depending upon a relaxed state of the intestinal mucous membrane.

Locally, it has also been used with much advantage in sponginess of the gums, relaxation of the uvula, hypertrophy of the tonsil, as an astringent injection in the treatment of leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhagia.



Family Name: Loganiaceae

Botanical Name : Strychnos nux-vomica Linn

vernacular Name: Sans-Karaskarah ,Hind -Kucchala , Eng – Nux vomica


Parts used: bark, leaves, seeds

Properties and uses:

The root bark is bitter and is useful in cholera.

The leaves are applied as poultice in the treatment of chronic wounds and ulcers and the leaf decoction is useful in paralytic complaints.

The leaves when applied as poultice, promote healthy action in sloughing wounds or ulcers, more especially in those cases when maggots have formed. It arrests any further formation of them, and those in the deeper parts perish immediately when the poultice is applied.

The root-bark is ground up into a fine paste with lime-juice, and made into pills which are said to be effectual in cholera.

The pulp of the ripe fruit is used in treating paralytic affections of paws and foot.

The seeds are bitter, acrid, a1exeteric, aphrodisiac, appetiser, antiperiodic, anthelmintic, digestive, febrifuge, emmenagogue, purgative, stimulant and stomachic.

They are useful in anaemia, asthma, bronchitis, constipation, diabetes, intermittent and malarial fevers, insomnia, cardiopalmus, skin diseases, paralysis and weakness of limbs.

The fruit is bitter, acrid. pungent; heating, appetiser. tonic, astringent to bowels,antipyretic; cures leucoderma, "vata" and " kapha ", diseases of the blood, itching, piles, ulcers. anaemia, jaundice", urinary discharges .

The fruit is bitter and poisonous; heating, tonic, aphrodisiac, diuretic; emmenagogue; cures pain in the joints, lumbago, ringworm, piles; useful in paralysis and weakness of the limbs

Juice of the fresh wood , obtained by applying heat to the middle of a straight stick to both ends of which a small pot has been tied is given in doses of a few drops in cholera and acute dysentery.

In some districts small quantities of the seeds are taken, apparently as a stimulant, or in lieu of opium.

The wood is used as a popular remedy for dysentery, fevers, and dyspepsia



Family Liliaceae

Botanical name Aloe vera

Vernacular names Sans-kumari, Hind- Ghikumari, Eng Indian aloe


Parts used—leaf juice, elio

Properties and uses

The plant is bitter, sweet, cooling, anthelmintic, carminative, depurative, diuretic, stomachic, ophthalmic and alexeteric.

The juice is used in dyspepsia, amenorrhoea, durns, colic, hepatopathy, splenopathy, skin diseases, constipation, vitiated vata and pitta, abdominal tumours, carbuncles, sciatica, lumbago, and flatulence.

The elio is used in helminthiasis in children and is purgative

It is used for local application in painful inflammations, chronic ulcers, catarrhal and purulent opthalmia.



Family Name: Asteraceae

Botanical Name : Saussurea lappa

vernacular Name: Sans- Kusthah ,Hind - Kuth , Eng - Kuth

Parts used: roots

Properties and uses:

The roots are bitter, acrid, sweet, thennogenic, aromatic, deodorant, aphrodisiac, anodyne, carminative, digestive, stomachic, diaphoretic, stimulant, alterant, depurative, galactagogue, diuretic, disinfectant, expectorant, febrifuge, rejuvenating and tonic.

They are useful in chronic and foul ulcers, cephalalgia, odontalgia, cough, asthma, bronchitis, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, cholera, leprosy, erysipelas, leucoderma, pruritus, ringw6rm, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, hiccough, hysteria, strangury, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, cardiopathy, gout, general debility and vitiated conditions of vata.

The root is hot, bitter, sweetish, pungent; fattening, aphrodisiac, alterative; improves the conmplexion; cures leucoderma, erysipelas, itching, ringworm, "tridosha", diseases of the blood, bronchitis, vomiting, scabies, "vata" , used in epilepsy, headache, hysteria .

The root is of two kinds: sweet and bitter; alexipharmic, carminative, analgesic, anthelmintic, emmenagogue, aphrodisiac, tonic; stimulates the brain; cures diseases of the blood, the liver and the kidney; cures headache, deafness, pain in the chest and in the joints, paralysis, asthma, cough, inflammations, ophthalmia,
old fevers

The root is prescribed as a stomachic and tonic, and in the advanced stage of typhous fever. The powder is applied , to ulcers, for worms in wounds, and also in rheumatism; also considered depurative and aphrodisiac




Family Name: Mimosaceae

Botanical Name : Mimosa pudica

.Vernacular Names: Sans: Lajjalu; Hind: Lajwanti;Eng : Sensitive plant.


The plant is sheetala, tikla, kashaya; subdues deranged kapha and pitta; beneficial in haemorrhagic diseases, diarrhoea and gynaecological disorders.

Parts Used; Leaves and root.

Therapeutic Uses;

Leaves: juice used in sinus, sores, piles and fistula: paste applied to glandular swellings and hydrocele; root: decoction efficaccous_in gravel and other urinary complaints.

The root is bitter and acrid; cooling, vulnerary, alexipharmic; cures" kapha ", biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, vaginal and uterine complaints, inflammations, burning sensation, fatigue, asthma, leucoderma, diseases of the blood

The root is resolvent, alterative; useful in diseases arising from corrupted blood and bile, bilious fevers, piles, jaundice, leprosy, ulcers, smallpox

A decoction of the root of this plant is useful in gravellish complaints. Some prescribe the leaves and root in cases of piles and fistula; the first are given in powder, in a little milk, to the quantity of two pagodas weight or more during the day.

The leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele; and their juice, with an equal quantity of horses' urine, is made into an anjan, used to remove films of the conjunctiva by setting up an artificial inflammation.

The juice of the leaves is used to impregnate cotton wool for a dressing, in any form of sinus. the plant is considered diuretic, astringent, antispasmodic. It is much used for convulsions in children.

it is prescribed for vesical calculi. Externally it is used rheumatism, myalgia, and tumour of the uterus.



Family Name: Lythraceae

Botanical Name : Lawsonia inermis L. syn. L. alba

vernacular Name: Sans: Madayantika; Hind: Mehendi; Eng : Henna


It is iaghu, ruksha, kashaya, tikta and sheetala; pacifies deranged kapha and pitta; beneficial in skin disease, fever, pruritus, burning sensation, haemorrhagic diseases, jaundice, blood dysentery, heart disease, dysuria, vertigo and ulcer.

Parts Used: Whole plant, seeds, flowers, leaves and bark.

Therapeutic Uses:

Whole plant: in headache and muscle pain:

Seeds' efficacious in leucorrhoea, menorrhagia and vaginal discharges; infusion ( also flowers) used in bruises and to cure headache;flowers: refrigerant and soporific
Leaves: given in leucorrhoea, menorrhagia and externally in headache; paste (with vinegar or lime juice) applied as poultice over the soles to relieve the troublesome burning sensation of the feet; (with water) in rheumatism;

Decoction is astringent and beneficial.in burns, bruises, inflammation and sprains; used as gargle in cases of ulcer in the mouth; juice mixed with milk prescribed in spermatorrhoea;

An ointment from the leaves useful as a cure of wounds and ulcers; root-bark: alterative, astringent and sedative; infusion given in calculous affections, enlargement of the liver and spleen, jaundice and skin diseases

The leaves are bitter, astringent, acrid, refrigerant vulnerary, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, constipating, depurative, liver tonic, haematinic, styptic, febrifuge and trichogenous.

They are useful in wounds, ulcers, strangury,cough, bronchitis, vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, burning sensation, cephalalgia, hemi_rania, lumbago, rheumatalgia, inflammations, diarrhoea, dysentery, leprosy, leucoderma, scabies, boils, hepatopathy, splenopathy, anaemia, haemorrhages, haemoptysis, fever, ophthalmia, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, falling of hair, greyness of hair and jaundice.

The flowers are intellect promoting, cardiotonic, refrigerant, soporific, febrifuge and tonic. They are useful in cephalalgia, burning sensation, cardiopathy, amentia, insomnia, and fever.

The roots are bitter, refrigerant, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, ,abortifacient and trichogenous, and are useful in burning sensation, dipsia, leprosy, skin diseases, strangury, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, and premature greying of hair.



Family Name: Rubiaceae

Botanical Name : Rubia cardifolia

vernacular Name: Sans-Mnajistha ,Hind - Manjith , Eng-indian madder


Parts used – roots

Properties and uses

The roots are sweet, bitter, astringent, thermogenic, anti inflammatory, antiseptic, digestive, carminative, antidysentric, diuretic, galacto-purifier, ophthalmic, rejuvenating and tonic.

Useful in vitiated kapha and pitta, rheumatoid arthritis, neuralgia, cephalalgia, dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhea, lepsory, skin diseases, leucoderma, pruritus, wounds, ulcers, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, opthalmopathy, intermattent fever, pharyngitis, cough, diabetes, discolouration of skin, sloe healing of broken bones, tubercular conditions of skin, jaundice, hepatopathy, splenopathy, leucorrhoea, pectoral diseases and general debility.



Family Name: . Asclepiadaceae

Botanical Name : Gymnema sylvestre

vernacular Name: Sans- Mesasringi ,Hind -Gumar , Eng - Periploca of the woods


Parts used: whole plant

Properties and uses:

The plant is bitter, astringent, acrid, thermogenic, antiinflammatory, anodyne, digestive, liver tonic, emetic, diuretic, stomachic, stimulant, anthelmintic, alexipharmic, laxative, cardiotonic, expectorant, antipyretic and uterine tonic.

It is useful in inflammations, hepatosplenomegaly, dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, haemorrhoids, strangury, renal and vesical calculi, helminthiasis, cardiopathy, cough, asthma, bronchitis, intermittent fever, amenorrhoea, vitiated conditions of vata, conjunctivitis and leucoderma.

The fresh leaves when chewed have the remarkable property of paralysing the sense of taste for sweet and bitter substances for sometime.

The plant is bitter, acrid; cooling, tonic, alterative, anthelmintic, alexiteric; useful in eye complaints, cures opacities of the lens, cornea, and vitreous body; good in diseases of the heart, piles, leucoderma, inflammations; cures burning sensation, biliousness, bronchitis, asthma, ulcers.-

The fruit is bitter, pungent, heating, stomachic, anthelmintic, alexiteric; good in diseases of the heart, urinary discharges, bronchitis, ulcers

Leaves in the treatment of furunculosis and madhumeha (glycosuria) .





Family Name: Cyperaceae

Botanical Name : cyperus rotundus Linn

vernacular Name: Sans- Musta ,Hind - Nagarmota , Eng – Nut grass


Parts used: tubers

Properties and uses:

The tubers are bitter, acrid, astringent, cooling, anti-inflammatory, revulsive, galactagogue, depurative, intellect promoting, nervine tonic, digestive, carminative, anthelmintic, stomachic. constipating, diuretic, lithontriptic, expectorant, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, vulnerary, febrifuge, antiperiodic and tonic, and are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, hyperdipsia, inflammations, agalactia, leprosy, skin diseases, scabies, erysipelas, pruritus, amentia, neurasthenia, epilepsy, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence. colic, verminosis, diarrhoea, dysentery, strangury, renal and vescical calculi, cough, bronchitis, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, wounds, ulcers, fever, intermittent and malarial fevers, vomiting, ophthalmia and general debility.

The root is pungent, acrid, cooling; astringent, bitter, appetiser, stomachic, anthelmintic; useful in leprosy, thirst, fever, blood diseases, biliousness, dysentery, pruritus, pain, vomiting, epilepsy,ophthalmia- erysipelas

The root is diuretic, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, anthelmintic, vulnerary; useful for ulcers and sores, fevers, dyspepsia,. urinary concretions

The roots are commonly used as a diaphoretic and astringent.

They are also credited with stimulant and diuretic properties. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disorders of the stomach and irritation of the bowels. the roots are used in fever

The bulbous roots are scraped and pounded with green ginger, and in this form, mixed with honey, they are given in cases of dysentery in doses of about a scruple. They are used too as an anthelmintic.

The fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue..

A decoction of the tubers is given in fever, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, and stomach complaints.

The root is considered diuretic' and antiperiodic, small tubers act on the lungs an liver. Their general action is tonic, stimulating, and stomachic.




Botanical Name : MESUA FERREA

vernacular Name:: Sans: Nagakeshara; Eng : Iron-wood.


Hind : Naageswar;

It is mild ushna, laghu, tikta; subdues deranged kapha; cures diseases of urinary bladder and those caused by deranged vata; beneficial in sore throat and headache.

Parts Used: Fruits, seeds, flowers, leaves and bark.

Therapeutic Uses:

Fruits: astringent, useful in gastric troubles; seeds: oil in rheumatism and cutaneous affections;

Flowers: astringent, stomachic and expectorant; powder mixed with ghee (butter fat) applied externally in bleeding piles;
The flowers are astringent and stomachic

Buds useful in dysentery; leaves: as poultice applied on forehead in severe colds;

Bark: astringent, Sweetish, carminative, binding, cardiotonic; good in asthma answeats; cures ulcers and piles , hot ,dry, easy to digest, digestive, good for fevers, sweats, biliousness, foul breath, scabies, skin eruptions, itching, small tumours, headache, blood and heart troubles, sore throat, cough, hiccough, vomiting, thirst, dysentery, and bleeding piles

Bark is mildly astringent and feebly aromatic. Combined with ginger it is given as a sudorifie,
In many localities they are used for cough, especially when attended with much expectoration.

A paste made of the flowers with butter and sugar is used in bleeding piles and burning of the feel.




Family Name: Fabaceae

Botanical Name : Indigofera tinctoria

Vernacular names Sans Nilini, Hind Neel, Eng Indian indigo


It is laxative, tikta, ushna; hair tonic; beneficial in stupor, vertigo, ascites, spleenomegaly, gout, deranged kapha. anila (vata), rheumatoid arthritis, constipation, syncope and powerful antidotal.

Parts Used: Whole plant, leaves and root.

Therapeutic Uses:

Whole plant: ointment from the extract (also crushed leaves) in the form of poultice applied to sores, ulcers and piles;

Leaves: juice prescribed in asthma, whooping cough, palpitation of heart, bronchitis and in kidney troubles;

Root: decoction useful in urinary troubles and hepatitis.




Family Name: Verbenaceae

Botanical Name : vitex negundo

vernacular Name: Sans- Nirgundi ,Hind - Nirgandi , Eng - Five leaved chaste tree


Parts used-whole plant

Properties and uses

The plant is bitter, acrid, carminative, digestive, anti inflammatory, antiseptic, cephalic, antipyretic, diuretic, rejuvenating, ophthalmic,

The roots are useful in vitiated vata, cephalalgia, otalgia, arthritis, inflammations, colic, uropathy, wounds, ulcers, haemorrhoids, dermatopathy, cough.

The root is considered tonic febrifuge, and expectorant

The leaves are useful in vitiated vata, kaphaja jwara, sprains, gout, splenohepatomegaly, oterrhoea, inflammations and ulcers.

The plant has a pungent, bitter, acrid taste; heating, astringent, cephalic, stomachic, anthelmintic; promotes the growth of hair; useful in diseases of the
eye, consumption, inflammations, leucoderma, enlargement of the spleen, bronchitis, asthma, biliousness, painful teething of children.

The leaves are aromatic, tunic and vermifuge.

A decoction of 'Nirgundi leaves is given with the addition of long pepper in catarrhal fever with heaviness of head and dullness of hearing.

A pillow stuffed with the leaves of Nirgundi is placed under the head for relief of headache.

The juice of the leaves is said to have the property of removing foetid discharges and worms from ulcers.

An oil prepared with the juice of the leaves is applied to sinuses and scrofulous sores.

The leaves are discutient, and are useful in dispersing swellings of joints from acute rheumatism and 'of the testes from suppressed gonorrhrea;

The juice of the leaves with that of Maka (Eclipta alba) and Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) is extracted, and Ajwan seeds are bruised and steeped in it, and given in doses of six massas for ,.rheumatism.

The juice in half tola doses with ghi and black pepper is also given, and in splenic enlargement 2 tolas of the juice with 2 to1as of cow's urine is given every morning.

The decoction of the leaves is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women .

The people are in the habit of treating febrile, catarrhal and rheumatic affections. by means of a ,vapour bath prepared with this plant.

The dried leaves :are smoked for the relief of headache and catarrh. The dried fruit :acts as a vermifuge.

The fruits are given for headache, catarrh, and watery eyes. the leaves, bark, and roots are used for toothache, rheumatism, eye disease; and as a tonic, carminative, and vermifuge.

The bark is useful in vitiated vata, odantalgia, opthalmopathy,.

Flowers are useful in diarrhea, cholera, fever, haemorrhagea, hepatopathy,and cardiac disorders.






Botanical name-Butea monosperma

Vernacular Names: Sans: Palasha; Hind : Palash Eng : Flame of the forest.


It is kashaya, ushna and anthelmintic; seeds are beneficial in scabies, pruritus, ring worm and other skin diseases; flowers are ushna; useful in pruritus and skin diseases.

Parts Used: Seeds, flowers, leaves and bark.

Therapeutic Uses:

SEEDS: anthelmintic; useful in flatulence and piles;

FLOWERS diuretic, depurative, astringent and aphrodisiac; bitter, expectorant, tonic, emmenagogue, diuretic, astringent; good in biliousness, inflammation, burning, urine, and gonorrhrea

LEAVES aphrodisiac and used as febrifuge; bark: the exuded gum (Butea gum) is used as an astringent; beneficial in diarrhoea and dysentery, diseascs of the eye,

The leaf is an appetiser; very astringent, carminative, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, lessens inflammation and lumbago; cures boils and piles

The flowers are sweet, bitter, hot, acrid; astringent to the bowels; increase "vata ";cure "kapha ", leprosy, strangury,. gout, skin diseases, . thirst, burning sensation; the juice is useful in eye diseases.

ROOTS cures night blindness and other defects of sight; useful in elephantiasis.-

BARK .is hot, acrid, bitter, oily; appetiser, aphrodisiac, laxative, anthelmintic; useful ;n fractures of the bones, diseaees of the anus, dysentery, piles, hydrocele; cures ulcers and tumours.

The bark is an appetiser; lessens inflammation, biliousness, dysmenorrhrea; used in liver disorders, fractures, gonorrhrea; topically in piles and hydrocele;, purifies the blood.

GUM is astringent to the bowels; good in dysentery, stomatitis, cough, pterygium, corneal opacities; cures excessive perspiration.
The gum is acrid, astringent, aphrodisiac; tonic to the liver; Used in diseases of the chest and lungs; useful in syphilis.

FRUITS and SEEDS are hot, dry, digestible, anthelmintic; aperient; used. in urinary discharges, piles; diseases, tumours, abdominal

The fruit and seed are bitter and oily; anthelmintic; useful in piles, eye diseases, jnflammation.

Lye is useful In enlargement of the spleen.

SEEDS are, largely used in the treatment of roundworm.,The powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hookworms, .

The oil from the seeds is quite ineffective against hookworms and round. worms

Externally; the seeds, when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin, act as a rubefacient.

They have .been successfully used for the cure of the form of herpes, known as dhobie's itch.

When made into a paste, they are used as a remedy for ringworm. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them.




Family Name: Crussulaceae

Botanical Name : . Bryophyllum pinnatum
Vernacular Names: Sans: Pashanabheda; Hind: Patharchur;

It is madhura, tikta; cures polyuria; allays thirst, alleviates burning sensation and dysuria; sheetala (sheetaveerya); heals urinary calculi.

Part Used: roots

Therapeutic Uses: Leaves: externally applied after toasting in the treatment of bruises, boils and bites of venomous insects; poultice or powder applied to sloughing ulcers.

The roots are bitter, astringent, cooling ,diuretic, laxative, useful in haemorrhoids, renalaand vesical calculi, diabetes and venereal diseases.



Family Name: . Moraceae

Botanical Name : Ficus religiosa Linn

vernacular Name: Sans- ashvatthah ,Hind - pippal , Eng – sacred tree


Sacred fig is madhura, kasaya and sheetaveerya; subdues deranged function of kapha and pitta; useful in the treatment of dyscrasia and burning sensation of the body.

The ripe fruits exert immediate action in the diseases of female genital organs

Parts used: bark, leaves, tender shoots, fruits, seeds, latex

Properties and uses:

The bark is astringent, sweet, cooling and aphrodisiac. and an aqueous extract of it has an antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aurells and Escherichia coli.

It is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids and gastrohelcosis.

Bark is found efficacious in gonorrhoea; pulverised bark is applied externally on unhealthy ulcer and wounds to promote granulation; efficacious when rubbed with honey and applied to aphthous sores of children. Infusion of the bark is astringent.

The bark has an acrid bad taste; useful in inflammations and glandular swelling of the neck.

A paste of the powdered bark is a good absorbent for inflammatory swellings and good for burns.

Leaves and tender shoots have purgative properties and are also recommended for wounds and skin diseases.

Tender and fresh leaves found beneficial when used along with butter-fat to cover the inflammatory areas of ulcer; oil, medicated with the leaves, cures earache when used as eardrops

The old leaves soaked in water stop vomiting.

Fruits are laxative and digestive; the dried fruit pulverised and taken in water cure, asthma: seeds are refrigerant and laxative.

The fruit is purgative, aphrodisiac; checks vomiting

The latex is good for neuralgia,. inflammations and haemorrhages.

All the parts are bitter, sweetish, acrid, cooling; useful in diseases, of the blood, vagina, uterus; given in leucorrhoea, burning sensation, biliousness, ulcers.-

The ripe fruit is cooling; alexipharmic; good for burning sensation, foul taste, thirst, biliousness, diseases of the blood and heart.-

The root is good for gout; the root bark is useful in stomatitis, to cleanse ulcers, as an astringent in leucorrhoea, to promote granulatlons.-The young bark is useful in bone fracture.-

The root bark is aphrodisiac and good for lumbago.-

The seeds are said to be cooling and alterative. The seeds are useful in urinary discharges

The leaves and young shoots are used as a purgative, and an infusion of the bark is given internally in scabies.

A paste of the powdered bark is used. as an absorbent in inflammatory swellings.

The dried fruit, pulverized and taken in water for a fortnight, removes asthma, and produces fruitfulness in women. Water in which the freshly.burnt bark has been ,steeped is said to cure cases of obstinate hiccup.

In cracked foot the juice is employed.

The powder of the dried bark is used in fistula in ano;

The juice of the bark is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening the gums.



Family Name: Nyctaginaceae

Botanical Name : Boerhaavia diffusa

Vernacular Names: Sans: Rakta punarnava; Hind : Biskhafra; Eng : Spreading Hog-weed.

It is tikta, katuvipaka, sheetaveerya, laghu; provokes vata; astringent; subdue
deranged sleshma and pitta and beneficial in dyscrasia..

Part used; Whole plant.

Therapeutic uses:

The plant is bitter, astringent, cooling, anthelmintic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, cardiac stimulant, emetic, expectorant, anti inflammatory, laxative, it is useful in all types of inflammations, leucorrhoea, opthalmia, lumbago, scabis, cardiac disorders, jaundice, anaemia, dyspepsia, constipation, cough, bronchitis and general debility.

Decoction of plant is beneficial in oedema and dropsy , dose 1-4 teaspoonful, 1 ml containing 1 g of dried plant).

Root is considered expectorant' diuretic and laxative; useful in the treatment of oedema, jaundice, ascites, anasarca, strangury, gonorrhoea and other internal inflammation.



Family Name: Asteraceae

Botanical Name : lnula racemosa

vernacular Name: Sans- Puaskaram ,Hind - puskarmul ,

Parts used: roots

Properties and uses:

The roots are bitter, acrid, thennogenic, aromatic, stimulant, antiseptic, deodorant, anodyne, antiinflammatory, digestive, canninative, stomachic, cardiotonic, expectorant, bronchodilator, diuretic, uterine stimulant, aphrodisiac, sudorific, emmenagogue, resolvent, febrifuge and tonic.

They are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and vata, foul ulcers and wounds, hemicrania, cardiodynia, hepatalgia, splenalgia, arthralgia, inflammations, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, cardiac debility, hiccough, cough, cardiac and bronchial asthma, bronchitis, strangury, nephropathy, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, skin diseases, cerebropathy, pneumonosis, emaciation, anaemia, fever and general debility.



Family Name: Fabaceae

Botanical Name : Pterocarpus santalinus

Vernacular Names: Sans, Hind: Raktachandana; Eng : Red sandalwood.


Parts used- heart wood, fruits.

It is extremely sheeta (sheelaveerya), tikta; beneficial in opthalmia, dyscrasia, mental diseases, deranged pilla, kapha, cough, fever, vertigo, worms, vomiting and thirst.

Therapeutic uses,

Wood as decoction, tonic, astringent, beneficial in fever, dysentery and haemorrhage, applied externally in the form of paste in headache, inflammations, boils, piles and in opthalmia.

The wood is bitter with a flavour; very cooling; antipyretic, anthelmintic, tonic, aphrodisiac, alexiteric; useful in vomiting, thirst, eye diseases; cures diseases of the blood, .. vata" and" kapha " biliousness, mental aberrations, ulcers .

The wood is bitter with a bad taste; inferior to white sandalwood; good for topical application only; if given by mouth causes coughing with expectoration; useful in fever, inflammation, trouble of the head and neck. toothache; cures hemicrania-

The seeds stop haemorrhage of the urethra; useful in dysentery .

Red sandalwood is considered astringent, tonic, and is used as a cooling external_ application for inflammation and headache.

It is a home remedy, useful in bilious affections and skin diseases, also in fever, boils, and to strengthen the sight. It also acts as a diaphoretic, and is applied to the forehead in headache.

The wood, rubbed up with water.is advantageously employed as a wash in superficial excoriation of the genital organs.

A decoction of the legume is useful as an a:stringent tonic in
chronic dysentery, after separation of the slough.



Family Name: Elaeocarpaceae

Botanical Name : :. Elaeocarpus sphaericus

vernacular Name: Sans,.Rudraksha; Hind: Rudraki; Eng : Ultrasum-bead tree


It is amla, ushna; pacifies demaged vata and kapha; relieves headache; appetizing and beneficial in mental diseases.

Part Used: Fruits.

Therapeutic Uses:

Fruits: In the treatment of headache and epileptic fits.the fruits are sour, thermogenic, appetizer, useful in cough, bronchitis, neuralgia ,cephalgia, anorexia, epileptic fitts, manic conditions, brain disorders,



Family Name:Gentianaceae

Botanical Name : Convolvulus pluricaulis


Vernacular names Sans Sankhapushpi, Hind Samkhaphuli, Eng Canscora


Parts used-Whole plant

Properties and uses-

The whole herb is used medicinally in inflammations, ascities, abdominal disorders, insanity, epilepsy, nervous debility, weak memory, leucoderma, leprosy, skin diseases, ulcers and general debility..

Shankhapushpi is used as a brain tonic.

It is used as a psychostimulant and tranquilizer. It is reported to reduce mental tension.



Family Name: Asclepiadaceae

Botanical Name : Hemidesmus indicus

vernacular Name: Sans-Sariba ,Hind -Anantamula , Eng- Indian sarasaparilla


Parts used –roots, leaves, stem

Properties and uses-

The roots are bitter, sweet, cooling, aromatic, refrigerant, emollient, depurative, carminative, appetizer, diaphoretic, expectorant.

Useful in vitiated pitta, burning sensation, leucoderma,leprosy, skin diseases, pruritis, asthma, opthalmopathy, hyperdipsia, hemicrania, epileptic fits, dyspepsia, diarrhea, dysentery, haemorrhoids, leucorrhoea, syphilis, abscess, arthralgia, nad general debility.

Leaves are useful in vomiting, wounds, leucoderma

Stems are bitter, diaphoretic, laxative useful in unflammations, cerebropathy, hepatopathy, nephropathy, syphilis, leucoderma, odontalgia, cough, asthma.

Latex is good for conjunctivitis.




Family Name: Apocynaceae

Botanical Name : Rauvolfia serpentina

vernacular Name: Sans- Sarpaganda ,Hind - Candrabhaga , Eng – Rauvolfia root

Parts used: roots, leaves

Properties and uses:

The roots are bitter, acrid, laxative, anthelmintic, thermogenic and diuretic and possess sedative properties.

It is highly reputed for hypertension, and is useful in strangury, fever, wounds, colic, insomnia, epilepsy, giddiness, dyspepsia and vitiated conditions of kapha and vata.

The decoction of the root is used to increase uterine contractions.

The juice of the leaves is used as a remedy for the removal of opacities of the cornea.

The root is bitter, acrid, heating, sharp, pungent; anthelmintic; cures" tridosha ", ulcers. the poisonous effects of scorpion-sting and snake-bite .

A decoction of the root is employed in labours to increase uterine' contractions. it is used as an anthelmintic.

The juice of the leaves is instilled into the eyes as a remedy for the removal of opacities of the cornea.





Family Name:Apiaceae

Botanical Name : Foeniculum vulgare

vernacular Name: Sans-Miaseya ,Hind - saumph , Eng –Femmel


Parts used- fruits

Properties and uses

The fruits are sweet, acrid bitter, emollient, expectorant, ophthalmic, intellect promoting, carminative, digestive, stomachic, cardiac stimulant, galactagogue, aphrodisiac.

Usefuk in vitiated pitta, vata, burning sensation, cough, anaemia, flatulence, anorexia, colic, vomiting, dysentery, skin diseases, dysuria, splenopathy, nephropathy, cephalalgia and general debility.



Family Name: Liliaceae

Botanical Name : Asparagus recemosa

vernacular Name: Sans- Shatavari ,Hind - Satawar , Eng –wild asparagus

parts used- tuberous roots

properties and uses

The roots are bitter, sweet;. oleaginous, cooling, Indigestible; appetiser; alterative, stomachic, tonic, aphrodisiac: galactagogue, astringent to the bowels; useful in dysentery, tumours, inflammations. biliousness, diseases of the 'blood and the eye, throat complaints, tuberculosis, leprosy, epilepsy, night blindness .

The root is slightly sweet; aphrodisiac, laxative, expectorant, galactagogue, tonic; useful in diseases of the kidney and the liver, scalding urine, gleet, gonorrhoea .

The root of this plant is used medicinally as a refrigerant, demulcent, diuretic, aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, alterative, antidiarrhoeatie and anti-dysenteric.





. Family Name: Mimosaceae

Botanical Name : Albizia lebbek

Vernacular Names: Sans, Hind: Sirisha;; Eng : East Indian walnut.

The plant is katu, sheela (sheelaveerya), beneficial in poisoning, derangedvata, scabies, dyscrasia, leprosy, pruritus and other skin diseases. Said to strengthen gums ,applied externally as plaster in leprous ulcers.

Parts used ,seeds, leaves, bark

Therapeutic uses,

seeds and bark are astringent, tonic, leaves are remedy for night blindness,

The root is used in hemicrania.-

The bark is bitter; cooling, alexiteric, anthelmintic; cures" vata ", diseases of the blood, leucoderma, itching, skin diseases, piles, excessive perspiration, inflammation, erysepelas, bronchitis; good in rat-bite.-

The flowers are given for asthma,

The root is astringent and prescribed for ophthalmia.-

The bark is anthelmintic; relieves toothache, strengthens the gums and the teeth; used in leprosy, deafness, boils, scabies, syphilis, paralysis, weakness.-

The leaves are useful in ophthalmia The leaves are good in night; blindness.-

The flowers are aphrodisiac, emollient, maturant: their smell is useful in hemicrania. The flowers are used as a cooling medicine, and also externally applied in boils, eruptions and swellings

The seeds are aphrodisiac, tonic to the brain; used for gonorrhoea, and tuberculous glands; the oil is applied topically in leucoderma.

The bark and seeds are astringent, given in piles, diarrhoea, etc.

The bark is applied to injuries to the eye..

The seeds form part of an anjan used for ophthalmic diseases.

The oil extracted from them is ,considered useful in leprosy.

The powder of root- bark is used to strengthen the gums when they are spongy and ulcerative.

The seeds are considered astringent used in diarrhea, dysentery, piles. The flowers are emollient and applied to boils and carbuncles



Family Name: Mimosaceae

Botanical Name : Acacia sinuata

vernacular Name: Sans-Saptala ,Hind -satala , Eng – soapnut-acacia

Parts used: pods

Properties and uses:

The pods are bitter, astringent, cooling, diuretic, emetic, deobstruant, detergent, depurative and anthelmintic.

They are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta, burning sensation, constipation, renal and vesical calculi, strangury, haemorrhoids, erysipelas, leucoderma, leprosy, prurigo, abscesses and eczema.

The powdered pods (known as cikkikkai powder) are the best alternative,'; to soaps in all cases of skin diseases.



Family Name: Solanaceae

Botanical Name : Ncotiana tabacum

vernacular Name: Sans- Tamakhuh ,Hind - Tamaku , Eng - Tobacco

Parts used: leaves

Properties and uses:

The leaves are bitter, acrid, thermogenic, sedative narcotic, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, carminative, laxative,emetic, abortifacient, styptic, mental stimulant and tonic.

They are useful in odontalgia, dental caries, inflammations, helminthiasis, dyspepsia,flatulence, haemorrhages, bronchitis, asthma, scabies, skin diseasesulcers, painful tumours, strangulated hernia, purulent discharge from the nose, tubercular glands of the neck, vitiated conditions of villa and otalgia.





Family Name: Lamiaceae

Botanical Name : Ocimum sanctum

vernacular Name: Sans-Tulasi ,Hind -Tulasi , Eng – Sacred bansil

Parts used: whole plant

Properties and uses:

The plant is bitter, acrid, aromatic, stomachic, demulcent, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, vermifuge and alexeteric.

It is useful in cardiopathy, haemopathy, leucoderma, asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal fever, otalgia, hepatopathy, vomiting, lumbago, hiccough, ophthalmia, gastropathy in children, genito-urinary disorders, ringworm, verminosis and skin diseases.

The plant has a pungent, bitter, taste; heating, stomachic, cholagogue, anthelrointic., alexiteric, antipyretic: useful in diseases of the heart and blood, leucoderma; strargury, "kapha" and" vata ", asthma, bhronchitis-', vomiting, foul smells, lumbago, pains, hiccough, painful eye, purulent discharge of the ear; causes burning sensation
The root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers.

The leaves have expectorant properties, and their juice is used in catarrh and bronchitis. This preparation also is applied to the skin in ringwonn and other cutaneous diseases.

An infusion of the leaves is used as a stomachic in the gastric disorders of children, and in hepatic affections.

The dried leaves are powdered and employed as a snuff in ozaena. They are also an effectual means of dislodging maggots.

The juice dropped into the ear is said to be a good remedy for earache.

The seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. and are given in disorders of the genito-urinary system. the herb is used in decoctions for cough and catarrh, sometime; chewed as a substitute for betel.

The fresh roots are ground with water and applied to the stings of wasps and bees and the bites of worms and leeches.

The bruised fresh roots, stems, and leaves are applied to the bites of mosquitoes

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Family Name: Lauraceae

Botanical Name : Cinnamomum zeylanicum

Vernacular Names: Sans: tvacha; Hind: tvakh; Eng -cinnamon


It is katu, sheeta veerya, laghu, beneficial in derabged kpha, expectorant, spermicidal, antidysentric and remover hoarseness of voice.

Parts used: Leaves and bark.

Therapeutic uses:

In the form of oil used externally in the treatment rheumatism, neuralgia, headache and toothache.

It is internally used in common gastro-intestinal symptoms such as dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhoea, nausea vomiting; useful in menorrhagia, gonorrhoea, tuberculosis and enteric fever.



Family Name: Poaceae

Botanical Name : veria zizanioides

vernacular Name: Sans- Usirah ,Hind - Khas , Eng - Khus-Khus


Parts used: roots

Properties and uses:

The roots are bitter, sweet, acrid, refrigerant, aromatic, diaphoretic, dephurative, digestive, carminative, stomachic, antiemetic, constipating, haematinic, haemostatic, expectorant, diuretic, febrifuge, stimulant, anthelmintic, emmenagogue, alexeteric, soporific, antispasmodic and tonic,

They are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta and vata, hyperdipsla, burning sensation, ulcers, skin diseases, nausea, obstinate vomiting, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, anaemia,haemorrhages, haemoptysis, cough, asthma, hiccough, strangury"biliousfever, gout, lumbago, sprains, halitosis, cephalalgia, spermatorrhoea, hysteria, insomnia, diarrhoea, hyperhidrosis, amentia, cardiac debility, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, helminthiasis, spasmodic affections, erysipelas, emaciation and general debility.

The root is cooling, bitter, stomachic, astringent, useful in burning sensations, bilious fevers, foul breath, thirst, strangury, ulcers, diseases of the blood

The root is cooling to the brain; bitter, soporific; useful in spermatorrhoea, headache, diseases of the blood .

An infusion of the root is given as a febrifuge, and a powder in bilious complaints. It is regarded as stimulant, diaphoretic, stomachic and refrigerant.

The essence is used as a tonic.

A paste of the pulverised roots in water is also used as a cooling external application in fevers.

The infusion of the roots is used as a tonic and an emmenagogue.




Family Name: Capparidaceae

Botanical Name : Crataeva nurvala

VemacularNames: Sans: Varuna; Hind : Barun; Eng: Three-leaved caper.


The plant is katu, ushnaveerya, snigdha; cures dyscrasia and headache; appetizing; beneficial in internal abscess and deranged vata.

Parts used: Leaves, stem-bark and root-bark.

Therapeutic uses:

Fresh leaves and stem-bark are rubefacient.

Leaf juice in doses of 5 to 30 g mixed with coconut milk and butter-fat is given intern: rheumatism.

Powdered bark is useful in urinary and renal troubles, gastrotinal and uterine affections. It is a good appetizer.

Decoction of the bark, pounded with the powder of root, is found efficacious in gravel. Collyrium from the bark is applied to the outer surface of eyelids in eye affections.

Bark and leaves are pounded, tied in a cloth and applied as hot fomentation in rheumatic pain.

Root-bark extract, mixed with honey (excess), is a valued remedy for scrofulous enlargements of the glands under lower jaw




Family Name: Acanthaceae

Botanical Name : Adhatoda vasica

vernacular Name: Sans- Vasaka ,Hind - Vasa


parts used --whole plant

properties and uses-

The plant is pungent, bitter, acrid, cooling, causes vata,
useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, diseases of the mouth.-

The root facilitates the expulsion of the foetus; useful in strangury, and in leucorrhoea with blood discharges

The root is diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore eyes, fevers, gonorrhoea.-

The leaves are emmenagogue; useful in gonorrhoea.-The flowers improve the circulation of the blood; lessen strangury and jaundice.-

The fruit is useful in bronchitis

The leaves and the root of this plant are considered a very efficacious remedy for all sorts of coughs, being administered along with ginger.

The leaves are also used for rheumatism.

The leaves dried and made into cigarettes are smoked in asthma
and their juice is used for diarrhoea and dysentery.

The flowers, leaves, and root, but especially the first, are supposed to possess antispasmodic qualities.

They are bitterish and sub-aromatic and are administered in infusion and electuary as anthelmintic.

The flowers and the fruit are bitter, aromatic, and antispasmodic. The fresh flowers are used in ophthalmia.

The powdered root is used in cases of malarial fever. It has expectorant and antispasmodic properties, and its use has been recommended in the treatment of colds, coughs. asthma, phthisis, and even diphtheria, in which it deserves more extended trial. It is said, also, to be a valuable antiseptic, antiperiodic, and anthelmintic.

leaves are smoked as cheroots for asthma. the juice of the plant is considered the best preparation. It is extracted from the young shoots and flowers by first washing them in an ordinary brass or iron vessel over a fire and then applying pressure. It is taken with ghi or honey.

The pound of the leaves and use them as a poultice for fresh wounds, while an infusion of the leaves and twigs is given internally for coughs. the leaves are used externally in cases of swellings, bleeding of the nose, and headache; and internally for fever, cold , asthma and dysentery.

It is prescribed in a spirit for wealthy persons suffering from certain humours. The spirit is prepared with this as a chief ingredient and several other articles, and it. is said to strengthen the chest and throat.

It has been known to cure bleeding of the lungs by taking a sweetened decoction of the plant. and the preparation is an excellent mixture for children and others with bad coughs and colds.

The whole plant is used in the treatment of excessive
phlegm; also in menorrhagia. The plant, more particularly the leaf, is credited with antiseptic and parasiticidal prcperties.

The fresh roots, bark, and leaves are bruised and applied to the 'wounds,; the expressed juice or an aqueous extract of the fresh leaves, is given internally; the fresh roots and bark are administered in the form of a decoction.



Family Name: Ranunculaceae

Botanical Name : Aconitum ferox

Vernacular Names: Sans: Vatsanava; Hind: Bish; Eng : Indian aconite.


It is madhura and ushnaveerya; beneficial in deranged vata and kapha; remedyfor the sore throat, typhoid fever; causes burning sensation due to pitta.

Parts used: Underground stem and root.

Therapeutic uses

The root and underground stems are highly toxic; but the toxicity may be reduced by suitable processing. In small doses are beneficial in nasal catarrh, uvula hypertrophy, sore throat, gibbous paralysis and chronic fever; in large doses it acts as narcotic poison and powerful sedative.

Internally, the tincture of root is used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of fever and rheumatism.

The root is considered to be cardiac stimulant, hypoglycemic, diaphoretic and antiphlogestic. Powdered roots in the form of liniment or paste is spread over the skin in case of arthritis and in scabies.

Roots are sweet, narcotic, anti inflammatory, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, nervine tonic, stomachic, appetizer, digestive, cardiotonic, depurative, sedative,They are useful in cephalgia, neuralgia, cough, bronchitis, hypotension, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, cardiac debility, skin diseases, sciatica, papalysis, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, spermatorrhoea, hepatopathy, splenopathy, diabetis, inflammatory fevers..



Family Name: Myrsinaceae

Botanical Name : Embelia ribes

vernacular Name: Sans-Vidangah ,Hind - Vayuvidanga , Eng - Embelia


Parts used: roots, leaves, fruits

properties and uses:

The roots are acrid, astringent, thermogenic and stomachic, and are useful in vitiated conditions of vata, odontalgia, colic, flatulence and dyspepsia.

The leaves are astringent, thermogenic, demulcent and depurative,and are useful in pruritus, skin diseases and leprosy.

The fruits are acrid, astringent, bitter, thermogenic, anthelmintic, depurative, brain tonic, digestive, carminative, stomachic, diuretic, contraceptive, rejuvenating, alterant, stimulant, alexeteric, laxative, anodyne, vulnerary, febrifuge and tonic, and are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and vata, helminthiasis, skin diseases, leprosy, pruritus, nervous debility, amentia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, constipation, strangury, tumours, asthma, bronchitis, dental caries, odontalgia, hemicrania, dyspnoea, cardiopathy psychopathy, ring-worm infestation, fever, emaciation and general debility.






Family Name:Fabaceae

Botanical Name : Glycyrrhiza glabra

Vernacular names Sans Yasti madhu, Hind Jethi madhu, Eng Licorice


It is madhura, slightly tikta, sheetala, used in opthalmia, deranged pitta, anorexia, emaciation, allays thirst and cures ulcer.

Part Used: Root.

Therapeutic Uses:

Root (powder) : prescribed in coughs, hoarseness and in respiratory troubles; mixed with citrus juice efficacious in catarrhal affections and with honey in jaundice; in combination with ginger and milk, acts as a good tonic during convalescence; infusion,

Decoction or extract is laxative and an useful medicine in urinary diseases, bronchial and gastric troubles. alterative, galactagogue; good for the eyes, in incipient loss of sight, in diseases of the eyelid; removes biliousness, ear diseases due to biliousness; improves taste; lessens thirst, hiccough, vomiting, fatigue; heals ulcers, wounds; improves the voice; cures" vata ", inflammation, consumption, purifies the blood; useful in leprosy, anremia; hemicrania, haemoptysis, abdominal pains, epilepsy

'The root is hot, dry, sweet; diuretic, emmenagogue, demulcent; relieves thirst,
cough, vomiting, asthma, bronchitis, abdominal colic, headache; good in eye troubles; cures unhealthy humours, ulcers.-

The branches are bitter.-

The leaves are used for scalds of the head, and in foul perspiration of the armpits

The root is demulcent, pectoral, and emollient.used for coughs, consumption, and chest complaints..

The root is. said to be good for sore throats